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Fuel Cells, Hydrogen Energy And Related Nanotechnologies – Types, Applications, New Developments, Industry Structure And Global Markets

June 2009 | 773 pages | ID: F5FC3E8B0E9EN
Innovative Research & Products, Inc

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A fuel cell is an electrochemical conversion device. It produces electricity from fuel (on the anode side) and an oxidant (on the cathode side), which react in the presence of an electrolyte. The reactants flow into the cell, and the reaction products flow out of it, while the electrolyte remains within it. Fuel cells can operate virtually continuously as long as the necessary flows are maintained.

Fuel cells are different from electrochemical cell batteries in that they consume reactant, which must be replenished, whereas batteries store electrical energy chemically in a closed system. Additionally, while the electrodes within a battery react and change as a battery is charged or discharged, a fuel cell's electrodes are catalytic and relatively stable.

Many combinations of fuel and oxidant are possible. A hydrogen cell uses hydrogen as fuel and oxygen (usually from air) as oxidant. Other fuels include hydrocarbons such as gasoline, diesel, propane, butane, natural gas, and methanol, alcohols, hydrogen peroxide and others.

Fuel cells provide portable power, as do batteries, and may be lighter, smaller and more powerful than the batteries they compete against. Fuel cells are envisioned as a replacement for the internal combustion engine in vehicles. A fuel cell vehicle can usually go twice the distance of an internal combustion engine powered vehicle using the same amount of fuel. Fuel cells also compete against traditional forms of providing power to the electric grid, such as electricity from coal and natural gas power plants as well as solar and hydro power. Fuel cells create electricity at efficiencies of 50%-60%. When a fuel cell captures its excess heat for use, the system is known as a fuel cell combined heat and power (CHP) system, and these have achieved efficiencies in the range of 80%-85%. Traditional forms of power struggle to reach efficiencies of more than 40%. When pure hydrogen is used as a fuel source, the only by-product of the electrochemical conversion is water vapor. When hydrocarbon fuels are reformed to create hydrogen for a fuel cell, the resulting CO2 emissions are lower than traditional forms of power because of the fuel cell’s greater efficiency.

Despite their advantages, fuel cells have failed to achieve significant shares of the markets in which they compete. That has been due to their high costs and questionable durability. A fuel cell providing power to a home, business, or industrial concern must operate 24 hours a day, 365 days a year, and operate reliably for ten years, or 40,000 hours, to be competitive against the power grid. A fuel cell engine for a vehicle must operate reliability for 5,000 hours to compete against the internal combustion engines. Nanotechnology is providing fuel cell manufacturers with the technology needed to make fuel cells more durable and cost competitive with traditional power sources.

Over the past few years, fuel cells have demonstrated increased reliability and lower costs thanks to the incorporation of nanomaterials. Nanomaterials are also increasingly used in the production, purification and storage of hydrogen for use with fuel cells. For the first time, manufacturers have stated their intentions to begin manufacturing tens of thousands of fuel cell systems per year per manufacturer in 2009, 2010 and beyond, with the promise of moving to hundreds of thousands of units by 2015. Prior to 2009, individual manufacturers were producing less than 4,000 units a year at the most.

Fuel cells and hydrogen energy compete in markets that are collectively worth more than a trillion dollars annually

STUDY GOAL AND OBJECTIVES

This study focuses on fuel cell systems, hydrogen energy producers and enabling nanotechnology. The study provides market data about the size and growth of application segments, industry trends, new developments, including a detailed patent analysis, and company profiles. Another goal of this report is to provide a detailed and comprehensive multi-client study of the market in North America, Europe, Japan, China, India, Korea and the rest of the world for fuel cells, hydrogen energy and related nanotechnology, and potential growth opportunities in the future.

The objectives include a thorough coverage of the underlying economic issues driving the fuel cell and hydrogen energy industries, as well as assessments of improved fuel cell materials that are being developed. Another important objective is to provide realistic market data and forecasts for fuel cells, hydrogen energy and related nanotechnology. This study provides the most thorough and up-to-date assessment that can be found anywhere on this subject. The study also provides extensive quantification of the many important facets of market developments in fuel cell systems and hydrogen energy use all over the world. This, in turn, contributes to the determination of what kind of strategic response companies may adopt in order to compete in this dynamic market.

The goal of the study was to determine the current and future financial and technological state of the fuel cell and hydrogen energy industries and the influence of related nanotechnologies. One of the objectives was to determine how many organizations in each nation were involved in what type of fuel cells or hydrogen energy technology. The study provides a review of the activities of more than 3,800 organizations developing fuel cells, hydrogen energy and related nanotechnology.

REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY

Fuel cells fueled by hydrogen are a breakthrough technology that can replace traditional power sources such as batteries and the electric power grid as well as the internal combustion engine. . In addition to offering performance advantages over existing technologies, fuel cells are typically smaller and use much less fuel that competing technologies. Governments across the world are providing more than $4 billion dollars in research funding annually to further fuel cell and hydrogen energy development. Hydrogen is seen as a replacement fuel for hydrocarbon fuels based on oil and natural gas production, and it is expected to become the power source of the future, doing for distributed power production what the personal computer did for distributed computing, allowing users to free themselves from mainframe computers. As such, fuel cells are expected to become as ubiquitous as batteries.

Because they are seen as a key future power source, fuel cell manufacturing is expected to create millions of jobs worldwide over the next ten years, and governments are competing to secure these jobs for their people. While the U.S. leads the world in fuel cell manufacturing, Japan is developing significant fuel cell manufacturing capability.

Fuel cell systems and hydrogen energy are truly disruptive technologies that can enable significant reductions in fuel costs and CO2 and other pollutant emissions. Japanese users of fuel cell combined heat and power systems are experiencing a 15% reduction in energy costs, even when the cost of leasing a fuel cell is factored into the equation. Fuel cells have also proven to be more economical than lead acid batteries in critical uninterruptible power applications, such as for wireless telecom stations and data centers. Fuel cells are also more economical than batteries used to power materials handling vehicles, an application that is seeing growth rates in excess of 100% annually.

Fuel cells are also emerging from a period of demonstrations where they have operated reliably for 5 to 10 years with decreased use of expensive materials such as platinum, proving that they are ready to seriously compete against traditional forms of power.

With this background of enabling nanotechnologies, improved fuel cell durability and lower costs, and increased fuel cell manufacturing with associated increases in hydrogen production, iRAP felt a need to conduct a detailed study including current and emerging technologies, new developments and market opportunities. The report identifies and evaluates fuel cell systems and hydrogen production technologies which show potential growth and their associated nanotechnology.

CONTRIBUTIONS OF THE STUDY

While fuel cells are expected to become a common method of producing electricity over the next 50 years, their ascent into the market place is just beginning. The industry is highly fragmented, and many of the technological improvements are occurring in university and government laboratories which often are spun-out into new start-up businesses. The start-up companies seek venture financing or partnerships with established well-financed corporations in order to advance their technologies and manufacturing capabilities. The study gathers, for the first time, a comprehensive review of worldwide efforts to advance fuel cell and hydrogen energy technologies, especially with regard to enabling nanotechnologies and nanomaterials, by examining the efforts of more than 3,800 organizations.

Going forward, fuel cells and hydrogen energy and enabling nanotechnology and material will provide the fuel cell market with higher power, greater durability and reliability as well as lower cost, while maintaining the fuel saving and associated cost benefits along with lower pollution and the possibility of augmenting income through the use of carbon off-set credits.

This study also provides the most complete accounting of fuel cell and hydrogen enegy growth in North America, Europe, Japan, and the rest of the world currently available in a multi-client format. The markets have also been estimated according to the type of fuel cell chemistry used, such as proton exchange fuel cells, direct methanol fuel cells, solid oxide fuel cells, molten carbonate fuel cells, and other types of fuel cells. It also examines the markets for fuel cells and hydrogen energy in portable power, stationary and vehicle applications. Further, it provides insights into the nanotechnologies and nanomaterials used in fuel cell fabrication and hydrogen production. The study also provides extensive quantification of the many important facets of market developments in the emerging markets for fuel cells ranging from less than one watt to multiple megawatts.

SCOPE AND FORMAT

“Fuel Cells, Hydrogen Energy and Related Nanotechnology” examines proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs), their state of development, their costs, the markets for the fuel cells and the markets for nanotechnologies for proton exchange membrane fuel cells.

This study also focuses on direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs), their state of development, their costs, the markets for the fuel cells, nanotechnologies for this type of fuel cell and the market for nanotechnologies for direct methanol fuel cells.

This report details solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), their state of development, their costs, the markets for the fuel cells and for nanotechnologies for solid oxide fuel cells. Phosphoric acid fuel cells (PAFCs) and molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFCs), their manufacturers and the state of the art of those technologies, as well as their markets, are also studied in detail.

Also examined are hydrogen production, purification and storage technologies associated with fuel cells, the state of development, the costs, and the markets by hydrogen production and storage. The report also examines nanotechnology for hydrogen production and storage as well as the market for nanotechnology for hydrogen production and storage.

The materials, manufacturing methods and machinery used in producing nano-materials for fuel cells as well as hydrogen production and storage are reported on in great detail, as well as their application to each of the various fuel cell chemistries.

Tables ordered by nation offer a brief look at the activities of each of the 3,800 organizations in the report. The activities of all major industrial nations are reviewed.

The report also looks at the production, availability and costs of key raw materials for each of the fuel cell chemistries. Profiles of more than 800 of the 3,800 companies and organizations are offered in a companion directory entitled “Fuel Cells, Hydrogen Energy and Related Nanotechnology Directory.”

METHODOLOGY

The research methodology was qualitative in nature and employed a triangulative approach, which aids validity. Initially, a comprehensive and exhaustive search of the literature on fuel cells, hydrogen and related nanotechnology was conducted. These secondary sources included journals and related books, trade literature, marketing literature, other product/promotional literature, annual reports, government reports, and other publications. A patent search and analysis was also conducted.

In a second phase, semi-structured fact-finding email correspondence was conducted with marketing executives, product sales engineers, international sales managers, application engineers, and other personnel of fuel cell, hydrogen producer and nanotechnology companies. Other sources included corporate and government conference presentations published by organizations in the U.S. and Europe and Asia. Information was also garnered from academics, technology suppliers, technical experts, trade association officials, government officials, and consulting companies. These were a rich source of data. Subsequent analysis of the documents and interview notes was iterative.

The final process included techniques such as preliminary research, fill-gap research, historical analysis of end-user markets and supply chain/raw materials, data consolidation, cross linking, variance determination projections, variance factorization and confirmatory primary research.

INFORMATION SOURCES

Initially, a comprehensive and exhaustive search of the literature on fuel cells, hydrogen as an energy source, and related nanotechnology was conducted. Sources included the latest press releases on company Websites, including application news, company news, marketing news, product news, brochures, product literature, and fuel cell and hydrogen magazines, and technical journals, as well as technical books, marketing literature, other promotional literature, annual reports, security analyst reports, and other business publications from fuel cell, hydrogen production and nanotechnology industries.

For this report, there exists little market data in the available literature that analyzes the fuel cell industry as a whole industry. Even with the data that do exist, for the most part, the challenge was to identify the fuel cell market and its use of hydrogen as a fuel accurately, and evaluate how it fits in areas such portable power where fuel cells compete against batteries, or stationary power where fuel cells compete against the power grid, and in vehicle markets where fuel cells provide motive power for buses, cars and materials handling vehicles and hydrogen, as a fuel competes with gasoline, diesel, coal, natural gas and battery power. Government research spending for fuel cells and hydrogen as an energy source accounts for nearly half the spending in the $8.4 billion a year industry.

The second phase involved formal and informal telephone interviews/email correspondence with personnel in the fuel cell industry as well as hydrogen producers and nanotechnology companies. Suppliers, design engineers, consulting companies, other technical experts, government officials, and trade association officials were also interviewed, as well as the personnel using fuel cells powered by hydrogen.

By employing these information sources and using various forms of primary information gathering techniques, all results could be cross-correlated and tested for reasonableness. In addition, the thorough and appropriate use of statistical analysis techniques insured that the conclusions drawn from this report accurately represent the surveyed markets. The author of this report believes that this combination of thorough and detailed data gathering, together with the use of sophisticated statistical analysis, has yielded a high degree of accuracy.

Other sources of information include United Nations, U.S., European, Canadian, Chinese, Japanese, Australian, Brazilian and Indian government reports, studies, research abstracts and status reports, press releases, conference presentations, telephone and email communication. Corporate information includes annual reports, quarterly reports, press releases, information from corporate Websites, corporate presentations to analysts, conference presentations, and published speeches by corporate executives as well as telephone and email communications, including foreign language translations of public information. The report also includes information from television reports and the print media. Most information was published between January 2006 and January 2009.

TO WHOM THE STUDY CATERS

Fuel cells are positioned to become a preferred solution for many types of consumer, commercial and industrial power applications.

]This study provides a technical overview of the fuel cell, hydrogen energy and related nanotechnology industries, especially recent technology developments and existing barriers. Therefore, audiences for this study include marketing executives, business unit managers and other decision makers in companies producing fuel cells, hydrogen energy and nanotechnology for these applications. The audience includes government, private and public entities that are considering building new power production plants, or commercial or industrial facilities which could include their own power sources and result in considerable energy savings. The study also provides direction to companies that may wish to take part in more than $4 billion in annual government spending across the world to advance the cause of fuel cells and hydrogen energy. Hundreds of millions of dollars in grants are awarded each year in the U.S. and abroad to small companies with innovative solutions to fuel cell development and hydrogen energy production.

U.S. home and office builders should benefit from the experience of utilities in Europe and Japan who have been more active in the residential market for fuel cell combined heat and power for a while. Local government authorities should benefit by adopting regulations that will spur the adoption of fuel cell power, which will result in energy savings, lower pollution and possibly new and higher paying jobs. Ohio, California, New York and Connecticut are examples of four states that have adopted policies and regulations that will significantly hasten the adoption of fuel cell power in those states.

Fuel cell manufacturers may discover new partners and technologies recently introduced. Venture capital companies will be aided in discovering the latest improvement to fuel cell manufacturing and hydrogen production aided and enabled by nanotechnology.

REPORT SUMMARY

The lure of fuel cells is the promise to be one of the most ubiquitous products of the 21st century. Fuel cells can compete with batteries, the internal combustion engine and the power grid. Hydrogen can compete with any fuel now produced and cause no pollution, but its price is higher than gasoline or natural gas because it is difficult to transport and store. Nanotechnologies will provide the technological keys that enable fuel cells and hydrogen as a fuel to become competitive and commonplace.

The fuel cell and hydrogen energy industry is highly fragmented. The iRAP study identified most of these companies, research institutions and universities.

Major findings of this report are:

iRAP study identified 3,870 organizations involved in fuel cells, hydrogen energy and related nanotechnology and spent an estimated $8.4 billion in 2008.

More than 2,180 organizations are involved in nanotechnology related to fuel cells and hydrogen energy and will spend a total of $4.7 billion for fuel cells and hydrogen energy incorporating nanotechnology.

Another 1,690 organizations (44%) are involved with fuel cells and hydrogen energy but not related nanotechnology. They are involved with valves, piping, power electronics, pumps, compressors, fans and other fuel cell system parts.

Of the $4.7 billion, about $2 billion in 2008 expenditures, or 24% of the total spending, represents the value of nanotechnology for fuel cells and hydrogen energy separate from all other expenditures.

The organizations are made up of well established corporations, start-up companies, universities, governments at the federal, state and municipal level, cooperative public/private demonstrations, as well as non-profit organizations and laboratories.

Those organizations involved in nanotechnology are developing electrodes, catalysts, and membranes, as well as nano coatings, thermal and filtration products for fuel cells and materials for hydrogen production, purification and storage.

More than half the organizations involved in fuel cells, hydrogen energy and related nanotechnology have overlapping interests and are developing more than one kind of fuel cell or technology for more than one type of fuel cell.

Significant gaps still exists in the manufacturing processes for membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs), the heart of fuel cells, for proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs), direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) and solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs).

Nanotechnologies have been proven to substantially improve the performance and durability of PEMFCs, DMFCs and SOFCs, and to a more limited extent molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFCs) and phosphoric acid fuel cells (PAFCs).

Nanotechnologies offer a potential avenue for safe, solid storage of hydrogen for vehicles as well as methods of producing and purifying hydrogen from hydrocarbon fuels for use in fuel cells or via electrolysis of water or ammonia.
INTRODUCTION

Study Goal and Objectives
Reasons For Doing The Study
Contributions of The Study
Scope and Format
Methodology
Information Sources
Whom The Study Caters To
Author’s Credentials

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Summary Table A Summary of World Value Fuel Cell, Hydrogen Energy and Related Nanotechnology 2008
Summary Figure A Nanotechnology, Fuel Cells and Hydrogen Energy by Number of Organizations Involved, 2008
Summary Table B Value of Fuel Cells, Hydrogen and Related Nanotechnology 2008
Summary Figure B Share of Nano-Enabled Fuel Cells and Hydrogen Energy With That of The Total, 2008

INDUSTRY OVERVIEW

Table 1 Value Fuel Cell Technology Type, Hydrogen Energy and Related Nanotechnology, 2008
Figure 1 Technology Applications Value and Nano Technology Value, 2008
Table 2 Value of Fuel Cell Nanotechnology, 2009-2014 Cagr
Table 3 Value of Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Energy, 2009-2014 Cagr
Figure 2 World Distribution of Organizations Involved in Fuel Cells, Hydrogen Energy and Related Nanotechnologies, 2009
Table 4 World Distribution of Organizations Involved in Fuel Cells, Hydrogen Energy and Related Nanotechnologies, 2009
Fuel Cell Markets by Nation
Figure 3 Top 20 Countries in Fuel Cell & Hydrogen Energy Development
Table 5 Top Twenty Countries in Fuel Cell & Hydrogen Energy Development, 2008
Figure 4 Fuel Cell Technology Market Value by Nation, 2008 (Total Value $8.8 Billion)
Nanotechnology Markets by Nation
Table 6 Worldwide Value of Fuel Cells, Hydrogen Energy and Related Nanotechnology by Nation, 2008

MARKET BY TECHNOLOGY

Table 7 Fuel Cell Technology Parameters, 2009
Table 8 Value of Nanotechnology Related To Fuel Cell Technology & Hydrogen Energy, 2008
Figure 5 Value of Fuel Cell Technology (PEMFC, DMFC, SOFC), Hydrogen Energy, and Related Nanotechnology, 2008 ($ Millions)
Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells and Nanotechnology
Direct Methanol Fuel Cells and Nanotechnology
Solid Oxide Fuel Cells & Nanotechnology
Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells and Nanotechnology
Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cells and Nanotechnology
Hydrogen Energy and Nanotechnology
Materials/Catalysts

MARKETS BY APPLICATION

Table 9 World Value Fuel Cell & Hydrogen Energy Applications: Portable, Stationary, Vehicle, Fuel, Cagr 2009-2014 ($ Millions)
Table 10 Value of Fuel Cell & Hydrogen Energy Applications: Portable, Stationary, Vehicle, Fuel, 2009-2014 Cagr
Figure 6 Percent Hydrogen Use by Fuel Cell Application, 2014
Table 11 Hydrogen Use by Fuel Cell Application, 2014
Figure 7 World Value of All Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Energy and Nanotechnology by Application, 2008 ($ Millions)
Table 12 Nanotechnology Value Related To Fuel Cells and Hydrogen by Application, 2008
Figure 8 World Fuel Cell & Hydrogen Energy Technology by Application 2008
Table 13 Nanotechnology Value Related To Fuel Cell and Hydrogen by Application Along With Number of Organizations Involved, 2008
Portable
Table 14 Value of Portable Fuel Cell Applications, 2009-2014 Cagr
Military 1W TO 5KW
Small Electronics (<1 W TO 20 W)
Large Electronics (20 W-250 W)
Battery Charging (1 W-1 KW)
Other 1W-1KW Applications
Stationary
Figure 9 Global Electric Power Generation Capacity, 2009 (GIGAWATTS)
Table 15 Gigawatts New Annual Electric Power by Continent, 2009
Table 16 Cumulative Stationary Fuel Cell Growth by Megawatt 2008-2014
Table 17 Contrasting Value of Fuel Cell Megawatts in U.S. & JAPAN, 2009
Table 18 All Fuel Cells High Penetration Stationary, 2009-2004
Table 19 Middle Penetration Fuel Cell Stationary Market, 2009-2014
Table 20 Low Estimate: Stationary Market Penetration 2009-2014
Table 21 Cumulative Value of Installed Fuel Cell Base, 2009-2014
Table 22 Value of Megawatts From Cumulative Fuel Cell Installations 2009-2014
Table 23 Hydrogen Consumption by Cumulative Fuel Cell Installations, 2009-2014
Table 24 Stationary Fuel Cell Values Comparison MW, MWHS, H2 Kg Consumption, 2009-2014
Table 25 Long Term Electric Power Growth by Region 2005-2030
Table 26 World Gigawatts Compared To Fuel Cell Gigawatts, 2009
Figure 10 U.S. Stationary Market Shares: Industrial, Residential and Commercial, 2009
Table 27 Cost of Competing Power Generating Technologies
Table 27 Cost of Competing Power Generating Technologies (Continued)
Residential Power
Table 28 Fuel Cell Market Penetration: Irap Residential Consensus Cagr 2009-2014
Table 29 World Market For Residential Electric Power Value and Gigawatts, 2009-2014
Table 30 High Fuel Cell Penetration Residential Market, 2009-2014
Table 31 Mid-Range Fuel Cell Residential Penetration Scenario
Table 32 Low Residential Fuel Cell Penetration Scenario
Figure 11 Residential Fuel Cell Systems, 2007
Figure 12 PEMFC Fuel Cell CHP Scheme and Japanese Residential Fuel Cell Products, 2009
TABLE 33 Large-Scale Fuel Cell Demonstration Project Supplier & Manufacturer
Table 34 Fuel Cell Manufacturer Market Shares of Japanese Residential Market, 2008
Figure 13 Market Shares of Japanese Residential Demonstration Project, 2008
Table 35 Japanese Stationary Fuel Cell Market, 2007
Table 36 Japanese Subsidies For 1-KW Fuel Cell CHP 2005-2008
Figure 14 Market Shares of Japanese Fuel Cell Market by Installer, 2007
Table 37 Residential Fuel Cell Installer Market Shares, Japan 2007
Commercial Market
Table 38 Fuelcell Penetration, Commercial Market, 2009-2014
Table 39 World Market For Commercial Electric Power, 2009-2014
Table 40 High Fuel Cell Penetration Commercial Market, 2007-2014
Table 41 Middle Fuel Cell Penetration Commercial Market, 2007-2014
Table 42 Low Fuel Cell Penetration Commercial Market, 2009-2014
Industrial Market
Table 43 Industrial Fuel Cell Market Penetration, 2009-2014
Table 44 Value & GW World Industrial Electricity Growth, 2009-2014
Table 45 Fuel Cell Industrial Market, 2009-2014 CAGR
Table 46 Industrial Fuel Cell Mid-Market Penetration
Table 47 Industrial Fuel Cell High Market Penetration
Back-Up/Uninterruptible Supply/Stand-By
Table 48 Summary Fuel Cell Backup Power Market For Four Applications, 2009-2014
Table 49 Value FC Back-Up Power, 2009-2014
Table 50 Back-Up Power For Wireless Station Market, 2009-2014
Table 51 Back-Up Power For Wireline Stations
Table 52 Fuel Cell Back-Up Power For Utility Stations, 2009-2014
Table 53 Back-Up Power For Broadband Stations, 2009-2014
Table 54 Annual U.S. Federal Market For Uninterruptible Power Supply, 2008-2014
TABLE 55 Fuel Cell Vehicle Applications Value, 2009-2014
Passenger Vehicles
Figure 15 Technology Status of Fuel Cells For Transportation, 2007
Figure 16 European H2 & Fuel Cell Demonstration Roadmap For Road Vehicles, 2008-2015
Table 56 Comparison of Developments Between Fuel Cell Automobiles and Fuel Cell Scooters, 2009
Aerospace and Aviation Industry
Figure 17 Fuel Cell Aviation Applications
Table 57 Fuel Cell & Hydrogen Energy Aviation Firsts, 2007-2008
Table 58 Aerospace and Aviation Industry Applications
Buses
Table 59 Typical United States Transit Bus Costs, 2009
Table 60 Fuel Cell Bus and Related Nanotechnology Growth 2009-2014
Table 61 European Fuel Cell Bus Penetration 2010-1015
Figure 18 European Fuel Cell Bus Targets, 2010-2015
Forklifts and Material Handling
Table 62 cost analysis of forklifts in double-shift operations:
Fuel Cell VS Propane
Table 63 Advantages of PEMFC Forklifts Versus Battery-Or Propane- Powered Forklifts
Table 64 Markets For PEMFC-Powered Fork Lifts in U.S. Federal Agencies, 2009
Hydrogen Internal Combustion Engine Vehicles
Scooters/Bicycles/Wheelchairs
Marine
Auxiliary Power Units (APUS)

HYDROGEN ENERGY APPLICATIONS (FUEL)

Figure 19 Percent Hydrogen Use by Fuel Cell Application, 2014
Table 65 Hydrogen Use by Fuel Cell Application, 2014
Table 66 Bulk H2 Gas Costs, 2009
Figure 20 Hydrogen Energy Applications
Table 67 Hydrogen Energy Component Costs, 2009-2014
Table 68 Hydrogen Metric Tons & Value by Fuel Cell Application, 2009-2014
Stationary Hydrogen
Table 69 Hydrogen Energy Conversion $Kg H2/Kwh
Table 70 Hydrogen Energy Conversions
Vehicle Hydrogen
Portable Hydrogen
Hydrogen and Nanotechnology
Table 71 Value Nanotechnology For Hydrogen Production, Purification, Storage and Nano-Enabled Hydrogen, 2009-2014
Hydrogen Production and Nanotechnology
Wind Hydrogen
Table 72 Hydrogen Costs At Factory Level
Hydrogen Purification and Nanotechnology
Hydrogen Storage and Nanotechnology
Table 73 U.S. Consensus Codes & Standards: Passenger Vehicles
Table 73 U.S. Consensus Codes & Standards: Passenger Vehicles (Continued)

NANOMATERIALS

Platinum and Nanotechnology
Table 74 Relationship of Catalyst Loading by Weight To Membrane Electrolyte by Meter
Table 75 Platinum Loading and Platinum Costs: Per Watt, Per Kilowatt, Per 100 Kilowatt
Table 76 Relationship of One Ounce of Platinum Loading To Kilowatts of Power
Figure 21 Steps in Manufacturing Fuel Cell Platinum Electrodes
Carbon and Nanotechnology
Table 77 Carbon Nanotube Manufacturers, 2009
Table 78 Advantages of Aligned Carbon Nanotube (ACNT) Mea
Gold and Nanotechnology
Metal-Organic Framework (MOF) Compounds
Nickel and Nanotechnology
Palladium and Nanotechnology
Table 79 Major Palladium Producers, 2005
Ruthenium and Nanotechnology
Table 80 Nano-Ruthenium Fuel Cell Applications
Titanium
Aerogel
Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia (Ysz) and Other SOFC Materials
Table 81 Nanostructured SOFC MEA Materials
Table 82 Rare-Earth Oxide Prices in 2009
Zeolites

STRUCTURE OF THE INDUSTRY

Table 83 Top 40 Fuel Cell Companies, 2009
Table 83 Top 40 Fuel Cell Companies, 2009 (Continued)
Table 83 Top 40 Fuel Cell Companies, 2009 (Continued)
Table 84 Fuel Cell & Nanotechnology Stocks
Table 84 Fuel Cell & Nanotechnology Stocks (Continued)
Government Programs Influencing Industry Structure
Table 85 Top Government Programs, 2009-2014
Table 85 Top Government Programs, 2009-2014 (Continued)
American Recovery and Reinvestment ACT (of 2009 (AARA)
Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells: Structure of The Industry
Table 86 Top PEMFC Companies, 2009
Table 86 Top PEMFC Companies, 2009 (Continued)
Table 86 Top PEMFC Companies, 2009 (Continued)
Direct Methanol Fuel Cells: Structure of The Industry
Table 87 Top 30 DMFC Companies, 2009
Table 87 Top 30 DMFC Companies, 2009 (Continued)
SOFC, MCFC, PAFC: Structure of The Industry
Table 88 Top 30 SOFC, MCFC, PAFC Companies
Table 88 Top 30 SOFC, MCFC, PAFC Companies (Continued)
Table 88 Top 30 SOFC, MCFC, PAFC Companies (Continued)
Table 89 Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Manufacturers
Materials: Structure of The Industry
Table 90 Top Fuel Cell Material Companies
Hydrogen Energy: Structure of The Industry
Table 91 Top 40 Hydrogen Energy Companies
Table 91 Top 40 Hydrogen Energy Companies (Continued)
Table 92 Estimated United States Hydrogen Production Capacity, 2003 and 2006
Stationary Power: Structure of The Industry
Table 93 Top Stationary Fuel Cell Companies
Table 93 Top Stationary Fuel Cell Companies (Continued)
Table 93 Top Stationary Fuel Cell Companies (Continued)
Portable Power: Structure of The Industry
Table 94 Top Portable Fuel Cell Companies
Table 94 Top Portable Fuel Cell Companies (Continued)
Vehicle Fuel Cells: Structure of The Industry
Table 95 Top Vehicle Fuel Cell Companies
Table 95 Top Vehicle Fuel Cell Companies (Continued)
Table 95 Top Vehicle Fuel Cell Companies (Continued)
Table 95 Top Vehicle Fuel Cell Companies (Continued)

METHODS OF MANUFACTURING NANO FUEL CELL COMPONENTS

Table 96 Methods of Manufacturing PEMFC & DMFC Nano Fuel Cell Components
Table 97 Fuel Cell Nano Manufacturing Processes
Table 98 Methods of Manufacturing SOFC Nano Cell Components
Ball Milling
Laser Method
Focused ION Beam Lithography
Physical Vapor Deposition
Chemical Vapor Deposition
Chemical Vapor Deposition-SOFC
Electrochemical Vapor Deposition
Evaporative Deposition
Electron Beam Physical Vapor Deposition
Sputter Deposition
Cathodic ARC Deposition
Pulsed Laser Deposition
Dry Vacuum Coating
Laser Welding
Ink Jet Printing
Plasma Spraying
Screen Printing
Sintering
Sol-Gel
Spray Pyrolysis
Tape Casting
Table 99 Tape Casting Machine Manufacturers
Figure 22 Tape Casting Steps
Evaluation/Testing/Analysis
Table 100 Evaluation/Testing/Analysis Equipment
Table 101 Manufacturing/Processing Technologies
Table 102 Capacitor/Electricity Storage Technology
Table 103 Balance of Plant and Related Equipment
Table 104 Heat Utilization/Thermal Technology Cost of Proton Exchange Fuel Cells
Figure 23 PEMFC Component Systems and Percentage of Cost, 2007
Table 105 Comparison of PEMFC Stack Cost Per Kilowatt
Table 106 Component Cost For 80-Kw PEMFC, 2008
Figure 24 Membrane Electrode Assembly Components & Percentage of Cost, 2007
Table 107 Membrane Electrode Assembly Cost by Major Component, 2007
Figure 25 Percentage Cost of Membrane Electrode Assembly Manufacturing by Component, 2007
Table 108 MEA Manufacturing Dollar Cost Per Kilowatt, 2007
Figure 26 Percentage Component Cost in MEA Manufacturing
Table 109 Dollar Cost Per Kilowatt by Component For MEA Manufacturing For 80KW PEMFC Stack
Table 110 MEA Costs 2009

SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL COSTS

Table 111 Cost Estimates For A 5KW SOFC, 2008
Table 112 Cost of Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ) Nanopowder
Table 113 Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Stack Cost Estimate, 2008
Table 114 Soldi Oxide Fuel Cell Process Economics, 2008
Figure 27 SOFC System Component Costs, 2009
Table 115 Component Cost of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell, 2009
Table 116 Economic Summary of 2-KW SOFC Residential Co-Generator
Table 117 SOFC Stack Material Costs, 2008
Table 118 Reported SOFC Stack Costs, 2008

HYDROGEN COSTS

Figure 28 Natural Gas Reforming Hydrogen Production System
Table 119 Estimated Hydrogen Production Costs, 2008
Table 119 Estimated Hydrogen Production Costs, 2008 (Continued)
Table 120 Hydrogen Storage and Supply Technologies
Figure 29 Hydrogen Production Goals & Status, 2008
Table 121 Membership of International Partnership For The Hydrogen Economy Hydrogen Production Technologies
Table 122 Global Daily Hydrogen Production by Feedstock, 2007
Table 123 H2 and CO2 Production From Coal and Gas, 2007
Table 124 Current Processes For Producing Hydrogen
Table 125 Cost Estimates For Six Types of Station Equipment, 2008
Table 126 California –Shanghai Comparison For Hydrogen Delivery Compressed Gas and Cryogenic Liquid Storage
Table 127 Hydrogen Storage Prices
Table 128 Hydrogen Applications Vehicle Hydrogen Storage

NANOTECHNOLOGY FOR HYDROGEN PRODUCTION AND STORAGE

Table 129 Hydrogen Production Nanotechnology
Nanofiber Paper For Fuel Cells and Catalyst Supports
Development of Fuel Cell Cathodic Catalysts: Multimetallic Alloy Nanoparticles
Nanorod Array Photoelectrochemical Hydrogen Production
Nanocrystalline Photocatalysts For Hydrogen Production From Splitting of Water by Visible Light
Hydrogen Storage Technologies
Table 130 Doe On-Board H2 Storage, 2007 Status & 2010 and 2015 Targets
Table 130 Doe On-Board H2 Storage, 2007 Status & 2010 and 2015 Targets (Continued)
Materials-Based Hydrogen Storage
Table 131 Hydrogen Storage Issues
Nanotechnology For Hydrogen Storage
Table 132 Nanotechnology For Hydrogen Storage
Table 132 Nanotechnology For Hydrogen Storage (Continued)
Nano Hydrogen Storage Materials
Table 133 Nano-Enabled Hydrogen Storage Materials
Carbon Nanotubes
Nano Hydrides
Silicon Nanowire

PATENT ANALYSIS

Table 134 Fuel Cell Patents, H2 Storage and Nanotechnolgy U.S. Patents by Country, Through August 2008
Figure 30 Nanotechnology Patents by Country, Through Aug 1, 2008
Figure 31 Hydrogen Production and Storage Patents by Country, Through Aug 1, 2008
Figure 32 Fuel Cell Patents by Country, Through Aug 1, 2008
Table 135 Top Fuel Cell Patent Holders
Figure 33 Fuel Cell Patents by Entity, Through August 1, 2008
Table 136 100 Nano-Related Fuel Cell Patents

NANOSCALE FUEL CELL RESEARCH DIRECTIONS

Table 137 Nano-Catalyst Research For Fuel Cells, 2005-2009

PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANE FUEL CELLS AND NANOTECHNOLOGY

Figure 34 Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell
Table 138 Direct Hydrogen Conversion Reactions: Chemical Energy To Electrical Energy
Table 139 PEMFC System Cost by Major Component, 2008
Table 140 PEMFC Membrane Electrode Assembly Component Costs, 2008 Air Management
Table 141 Vehicle Cathode Air Blower Goals Assembly Balance-Of-Plant
Table 142 Balance-Of-Plant Components and Major Manufacturers Fuel Management
Humidity Management
Recent Developments in Humidity Management Nanotechnology
Membrane Electrode Assembly
Table 143 Membrane Electrode Assembly Components & Functions
Figure 35 Five Layer Membrane Electrode Assembly
Table 144 MEA Layers
Methods of Manufacturing
Direct Deposition
Decal Transfer
Table 145 MEA Manufacturing GAPS, 2008
Thermal Management
PEMFC Nanotechnology
Figure 36 PEMFC With Carbon Nanoparticles
Table 146 Impacts of Nanotechnology Fuel Cell Energy
Membrane Electrode Assembly and Nanotechnology
Table 147 Nanomaterials in Membrane Electrode Assemblies
Anode Nanotechnology
Table 148 Nanotechnology For PEMFC Anodes: Material, Benefit, Source
Nanotechnology and Bipolar Plates
Table 149 Bipolar Plate Functions
Table 150 Bipolar Plate Requirements
Table 151 Bipolar Plate Barriers, Needs, and Nano Application
Specific Nanotechnologies For Bipolar Plates
Table 152 Bipolar Plate Nanomaterials
Graphite-Based Bipolar Plates
Flexible Graphite Foil Bipolar Plates
Sheet Metal Bipolar Plates
Table 153 Manufacturing Gaps For High-Speed Bipolar Plate Processes, 2008
Catalysts
Table 154 Catalysts Needs and Barriers
Nano Catalysts For PEMFCS
Table 155 Nano Catalysts For PEMFC
Table 155 Nano Catalysts For PEMFC (Continued)
Table 155 Nano Catalysts For PEMFC (Continued)
Table 155 Nano Catalysts For PEMFC (Continued)
Table 155 Nano Catalysts For PEMFC (Continued) Cathode
Table 156 Needs For New Fuel Cell Cathode Catalyst Automotive Applications Cathode PEMFC Nanotechnology
Table 157 Nanotechnology For Cathodes
Table 157 Nanotechnology For Cathodes (Continued)
Table 157 Nanotechnology For Cathodes (Continued)
Proton Exchange Membrane Electrolyte
Nafion®
Polybenzimidazol (PBI)
Table 158 PBI Advantages for PEMFC
Intermediate-Temperature Proton Exchange Membranes and Stacks
Proton Exchange Membrane Nanotechnology
Table 159 Nanotechnology For PEMFC Membranes
Table 159 Nanotechnology For PEMFC Membranes (Continued)
Table 159 Nanotechnology For PEMFC Membranes (Continued)
Table 159 Nanotechnology For PEMFC Membranes (Continued)
Table 159 Nanotechnology For PEMFC Membranes (Continued)
Table 159 Nanotechnology For PEMFC Membranes (Continued)
Table 159 Nanotechnology For PEMFC Membranes (Continued)
Table 159 Nanotechnology For PEMFC Membranes (Continued)
Gas Diffusion Layer (gdl)
Gas Diffusion Layer Nanotechnology
Table 160 Gas Diffusion Layer Nanotechnology
Seals
Table 161 Manufacturing Gaps For High-speed Sealing Techniques
Seal Nanotechnology
Anode
Anode Nanotechnologies
Table 162 DMFC Anode Nanomaterials
Bipolar Plates
Catalysts
Table 163 DMFC Nanostructured Catalyst
Cathode Nanotechnologies
Direct Methanol Membranes
Table 164 Membranes For Direct Methanol Fuel Cells
Hydrocarbon Nano-engineered Membrane
Table 165 DMFC Membrane Nanotechnology
Fuel Diffusion Layer Nanotechnology
SOFC Research Directions
Table 166 SOFC Nanotechnology Benefits and Barriers, 2009
SOFC Materials and Manufacturing ‘research
Table 167 SOFC Cost Reduction Research Priorities
Table 168 Materials Manufacturing Research
Table 168 Materials Manufacturing Research (Continued)
Anode
Table 169 SOFC Anode Materials
Table 169 SOFC Anode Materials (Continued)
Anode Research
Table 170 Anode Research, 2008
Cathode
Table 171 Solid Oxide Cathode Materials
Cathode Research
Table 172 Cathode Research, 2008
Table 172 Cathode Research, 2008
Electrolyte
Figure 37 Electrolyte Structure in Planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell
Table 173 Solid Oxide Nano Electrolyte Materials
Electrode Research
Table 174 SOFC Electrodes Research
Interconnects
Table 175 Solid Oxide Interconnect Materials, 2008
Interconnect Research
Table 176 Interconnects Research, 2006-2008
Table 176 Interconnects Research, 2006-2008 (Continued)
Table 176 Interconnects Research, 2006-2008 (Continued)
Table 176 Interconnects Research, 2006-2008 (Continued) Seals
Table 177 Solid Oxide Seal Materials, 2008 seals Research
Table 178 Seals Research, 2006-2008
Table 178 Seals Research, 2006-2008 (Continued)
Table 178 Seals Research, 2006-2008 (Continued)
Catalysts
Catalyst Research
Table 179 Catalyst Research
Other Research
Table 180 Other U.S. Solid Oxide Research Projects, 2006-2008
Table 180 Other U.S. Solid Oxide Research Projects, 2006-2008 (Continued)
Table 180 Other U.S. Solid Oxide Research Projects, 2006-2008 (Continued)
Table 180 Other U.S. Solid Oxide Research Projects, 2006-2008 (Continued)
Table 180 Other U.S. Solid Oxide Research Projects, 2006-2008 (Continued)
Table 180 Other U.S. Solid Oxide Research Projects, 2006-2008 (Continued)

GOVERNMENT REGULATIONS

U.S. Hydrogen Policy
Investment Tax Credit Extension (2008)
Hydrogen Fuel Initiative (jan. 2003)
Figure 38 U.S. Hydrogen Initiative $266 Million Budget Expenditures by Application, 2009
Figure 39 U.S. Doe Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)
Hydrogen Program Budget 2004-2009
Epact 2005 (public Law 109-58) Title Viii Hydrogen
Advanced Energy Initiative (feb. 2006)
“20-in-10” Initiative (jan. 2007)
President Bush’s Advanced Energy Initiative (AEI)
Executive Order 13423 (jan. 2007)
Energy Independence and Security ACT (dec. 2007)
Energy Policy ACT (of 2005
Doe Funding $130 Million in Fuel Cell Research (2008)
Hydrogen Initiative
Regulatory Agencies For a Hydrogen City
Table 181 U.S. Regulatory Agencies For Hydrodgen Infrastrucutre
Table 181 U.S. Regulatory Agencies For Hydrodgen Infrastrucutre (Continued)
California
Connecticut Clean Energy
Ohio Fuel Cell Coalition
Additional State Regulations
Regulation by International Organizations
Table 182 Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Energy Organizations by Region, 2008
Figure 40 Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Energy Organizations by Region, 2008
Table 183 Nano-related Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Energy Organizations by Region, 2008
Figure 41 Nanotechnology For Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Energy by Number of Organization by Region, 2008
Table 184 Nations by Region in Fuel Cells, Hydrogen Energy and Nanotechnology
Table 185 Fuel Cell, H2 Energy and Nanotechnology Development by Region & Country, 2009
Table 186 Top Twenty Countries in Nanotechnology For Fuel Cells and Hydrogen Energy, 2009
Figure 42 Top Twenty Countries in Nanotechnology For Fuel Cells and Hydrogen Energy, 2009
Table 187 Other Countries Nanotechnology, Fuel Cells and Hydrogen Energy, 2009
Table 188 Value of Fuel Cell, Hydrogen Energy and Related Nanotechnology by Leading Nation Expenditures, 2009
NORTH AMERICA

United States
Table 189 U.S. Fuel Cell, Hydrogen Energy and Related Nanotechnology Organizations, 2008
Figure 43 U.S. Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Energy Organizations by Technology
Table 190 U.S. Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Energy Organizations by Technology Application, 2008
Table 191 U.S. Fuel Cell Technology Expenditures PEMFC, DMFC, SOFC, Hydrogen Energy, 2008
Figure 44 Fuel Cell Nanotechnology, Technology and Total Value, 2008
Figure 45 Expenditures On Nanotechnology Related To Fuel Cells and Hydrogen Energy, 2008
Table 192 U.S. Range of Spending On Nanomaterials As a Percentage of Nano-related Spending by Fuel Cell Technology: PEMFC, DMFC, SOFC, and Hydrogen Energy, 2008
Table 193 Expenditures of U.S. Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Energy Organizations by Type, 2008
Figure 46 Expenditures of U.S. Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Energy Organizations by Type, 2008
Table 194 U.S. Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Energy by Application
Figure 47 U.S. Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Energy Organizations by Application
KEY TO COUNTRY TABLES

TABLE 195 KEY TO THE COUNTRY TABLES
TABLE 196 EXAMPLE OF HOW TO READ TABLE KEYS

UNITED STATES

Table 197 U.S. Fuel Cell, Hydrogen Energy and Related Nanotechnology Organizations, 2009

CANADA

Table 198 Canadian Fuel Cell, Hydrogen Energy and Related Nanotechnology, 2008

MEXICO

Table 199 Mexican Fuel Cell, Hydrogen Energy & Related Nanotechnology, 2008

EUROPE

Figure 48 JTI Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Energy Budget, 2008-2013
Table 200 Innovation and Devlopment Action (ida)
Table 201 EU Fuel Cells and Hydrogen Joint Technology Initiative Research Spending, 2008-2014
Figure 49 Distribution of FCH JTI R&D Expenditures, 2008-2014
Table 202 Key Companies in EU Hydrogen and Fuel Cell
Technology Platform
European Union
Novel High-temperature Proton and Mixed Proton Electron Conductors For Fuel Cells and H2-separation Membranes
Synthesis and Durability of Cnt-based Meas For PEMFC (nanoduramea)
Bioh2 - Renewable Production of H2 Using Biological Systems
Table 203 European Union Fuel Cell, Hydrogen Energy & Related Nanotechnology

GERMANY

Table 204 German Fuel Cell, Hydrogen Energy and Related Nanotechnology Expenditures
Figure 50 Value of German Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Energy Industry by Organization, 2008
Table 205 German Fuel Cell, Hydrogen Energy and Relate4d Nanotechnology Organizations

FRANCE

Table 206 French Fuel Cell, Hydrogen Energy and Related Nanotechnology Organizations, 2009

AUSTRIA

Table 207 Austrian Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Energy Organizations by Application
Table 208 Austrian Organizations by Type and Expenditures 2008
Table 209 Austrian Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Energy by Application
Figure 51 Austrian Fuel Cell & Hydrogen Energy Organization by Application
Table 210 Austrian Nanotechnology, Fuel Cell and H2 Energy Organizations
BELGIUM

Table 211 Flemish Fuel Cell, Hydrogen Energy and Related Nanotechnology Organizations

SWITZERLAND

Table 212 Swiss Fuel Cell, Hydrogen Energy and Related Nanotechnology Organizations

DENMARK

Table 213 Danish Fuel Cell, Hydrogen Energy and Related Nanotechnology Organizations, 2009

UNITED KINGDOM

Table 214 British Fuel Cell, Hydrogen Energy and Related Nanotechnology 2009

SPAIN

Table 215 Spanish Fuel Cell, Hydrogen Energy and Related Nanotechnology Organizations

FINLAND

Table 216 Finnish Fuel Cell, Hydrogen Energy and Related Nanotechnology Organizations

GREECE

Table 217 Greek Fuel Cell, Hydrogen Energy and Related Nanotechnology Organizations

ITALY

Table 218 Italian Fuel Cell, Hydrogen Energy and Related Nanotechnology Organizations

NETHERLANDS

Table 219 Dutch Fuel Cell, Hydrogen Energy and Related Nanotechnology Organizations

NORWAY

Table 220 Norweigian Fuel Cell, Hydrogen Energy and Related Nanotechnology Organizations

POLAND

Table 221 Polish Fuel Cell, Hydrogen Energy and Related Nanotechnology Organizations

ROMANIA

Table 222 Romanian Fuel Cell, Hydrogen Energy and Related Nanotechnology Organizations

RUSSIA

Table 223 Russian Fuel Cell, Hydrogen Energy and Related Nanotechnology Organizations

ASIA - JAPAN

Table 224 Japanese Fuel Cell, Hydrogen Energy and Nanotechnology, 2008

CHINA

Table 225 Chinese Fuel Cell, Hydrogen Energy and Related Nanotechnology Organizations

KOREA

Table 226 Korean Fuel Cell, Hydrogen Energy and Related Nanotechnology Organizatons

TAIWAN

Table 227 Table Taiwanese Fuel Cell, Hydrogen Energy and Related Nanotechnology Organizations

SINGAPORE

Table 228 Singapore’s Fuel Cell, Hydrogen Energy and Related Nanotechnology Organizations

ISRAEL

Table 229 Israeli Fuel Cell, Hydrogen Energy and Related Nanotechnology Organizations

INDIA

Table 230 Indian Fuel Cell, Hydrogen Energy and Related Nanotechnology Organizations

TURKEY

Table 231 Table Turkish Fuel Cell, Hydrogen Energy and Related Nanotechnology Organizations

AUSTRALIA

Table 232 Table Australian Fuel Cell, Hydrogen Energy and Related Nanotechnology Organizations

REST OF THE WORLD

Brazil
Table 233 Brazilian Fuel Cell, Hydrogen Energy and Related Nanotechnology Organizations

OTHER COUNTRIES

Table 234 African Fuel Cell, Hydrogen Energy and Related Nanotechnology Organizations
Table 235 Other Fuel Cell, Hydrogen Energy and Related Nanotechnology Organizations by Country

LIST OF TABLES

Summary Table A Summary of World Value Fuel Cell, Hydrogen Energy and Related Nanotechnology 2008
Summary Table B Value of Fuel Cells, Hydrogen and Related Nanotechnology 2008
Table 1 Value Fuel Cell Technology Type, Hydrogen Energy and Related Nanotechnology, 2008
Table 2 Value of Fuel Cell Nanotechnology, 2009-2014 Cagr
Table 3 Value of Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Energy, 2009-2014 Cagr
Table 4 World Distribution of Organizations Involved in Fuel Cells, Hydrogen Energy and Related Nanotechnologies, 2009
Table 5 Top Twenty Countries in Fuel Cell & Hydrogen Energy Development, 2008
Table 6 Worldwide Value of Fuel Cells, Hydrogen Energy and Related Nanotechnology by Nation, 2008
Table 7 Fuel Cell Technology Parameters, 2009
Table 8 Value of Nanotechnology Related To Fuel Cell Technology & Hydrogen Energy, 2008
Table 9 World Value Fuel Cell & Hydrogen Energy Applications: Portable, Stationary, Vehicle, Fuel, Cagr 2009-2014 ($ Millions)
Table 10 Value of Fuel Cell & Hydrogen Energy Applications: Portable, Stationary, Vehicle, Fuel, 2009-2014 Cagr
Table 11 Hydrogen Use by Fuel Cell Application, 2014
Table 12 Nanotechnology Value Related To Fuel Cells and Hydrogen by Application, 2008
Table 13 Nanotechnology Value Related To Fuel Cell and Hydrogen by Application Along With Number of Organizations Involved, 2008
Table 14 Value of Portable Fuel Cell Applications, 2009-2014 Cagr
Table 15 Gigawatts New Annual Electric Power by Continent, 2009
Table 16 Cumulative Stationary Fuel Cell Growth by Megawatt 2008-2014
Table 17 Contrasting Value of Fuel Cell Megawatts in U.S. & Japan, 2009
Table 18 All Fuel Cells High Penetration Stationary, 2009-2004
Table 19 Middle Penetration Fuel Cell Stationary Market, 2009-2014
Table 20 Low Estimate: Stationary Market Penetration 2009-2014
Table 21 Cumulative Value of Installed Fuel Cell Base, 2009-2014
Table 22 Value of Megawatts From Cumulative Fuel Cell Installations 2009-2014
Table 23 Hydrogen Consumption by Cumulative Fuel Cell Installations, 2009-2014
Table 24 Stationary Fuel Cell Values Comparison Mw, Mwhs, H2 Kg Consumption, 2009-2014
Table 25 Long Term Electric Power Growth by Region 2005-2030
Table 26 World Gigawatts Compared To Fuel Cell Gigawatts, 2009
Table 27 Cost of Competing Power Generating Technologies
Table 27 Cost of Competing Power Generating Technologies (Continued)
Table 28 Fuel Cell Market Penetration: Irap Residential Consensus Cagr 2009-2014
Table 29 World Market For Residential Electric Power Value and Gigawatts, 2009-2014
Table 30 High Fuel Cell Penetration Residential Market, 2009-2014
Table 31 Mid-range Fuel Cell Residential Penetration Scenario
Table 32 Low Residential Fuel Cell Penetration Scenario
Table 33 Large-scale Fuel Cell Demonstration Project Supplier & Manufacturer
Table 34 Fuel Cell Manufacturer Market Shares of Japanese Residential Market, 2008
Table 35 Japanese Stationary Fuel Cell Market, 2007
Table 36 Japanese Subsidies For 1-kw Fuel Cell Chp 2005-2008
Table 37 Residential Fuel Cell Installer Market Shares, Japan 2007
Table 38 Fuelcell Penetration, Commercial Market, 2009-2014
Table 39 World Market For Commercial Electric Power, 2009-2014
Table 40 High Fuel Cell Penetration Commercial Market, 2007-2014
Table 41 Middle Fuel Cell Penetration Commercial Market, 2007-2014
Table 42 Low Fuel Cell Penetration Commercial Market, 2009-2014
Table 43 Industrial Fuel Cell Market Penetration, 2009-2014
Table 44 Value & Gw World Industrial Electricity Growth, 2009-2014
Table 45 Fuel Cell Industrial Market, 2009-2014 Cagr
Table 46 Industrial Fuel Cell Mid-market Penetration
Table 47 Industrial Fuel Cell High Market Penetration
Table 48 Summary Fuel Cell Backup Power Market For Four Applications, 2009-2014
Table 49 Value Fc Back-up Power, 2009-2014
Table 50 Back-up Power For Wireless Station Market, 2009-2014
Table 51 Back-up Power For Wireline Stations
Table 52 Fuel Cell Back-up Power For Utility Stations, 2009-2014
Table 53 Back-up Power For Broadband Stations, 2009-2014
Table 54 Annual U.S. Federal Market For Uninterruptible Power Supply, 2008-2014
Table 55 Fuel Cell Vehicle Applications Value, 2009-2014
Table 56 Comparison of Developments Between Fuel Cell Automobiles and Fuel Cell Scooters, 2009
Table 57 Fuel Cell & Hydrogen Energy Aviation Firsts, 2007-2008
Table 58 Aerospace and Aviation Industry Applications
Table 59 Typical United States Transit Bus Costs, 2009
Table 60 Fuel Cell Bus and Related Nanotechnology Growth 2009-2014
Table 61 European Fuel Cell Bus Penetration 2010-1015
Table 62 Cost Analysis of Forklifts in Double-shift Operations: Fuel Cell Vs Propane
Table 63 Advantages of PEMFC Forklifts Versus Battery-or Propane- Powered Forklifts
Table 64 Markets For PEMFC-powered Fork Lifts in U.S. Federal Agencies, 2009
Table 65 Hydrogen Use by Fuel Cell Application, 2014
Table 66 Bulk H2 Gas Costs, 2009
Table 67 Hydrogen Energy Component Costs, 2009-2014
Table 68 Hydrogen Metric Tons & Value by Fuel Cell Application, 2009-2014
Table 69 Hydrogen Energy Conversion $kg H2/kwh
Table 70 Hydrogen Energy Conversions
Table 71 Value Nanotechnology For Hydrogen Production, Purification, Storage and Nano-enabled Hydrogen, 2009-2014
Table 72 Hydrogen Costs At Factory Level
Table 73 U.S. Consensus Codes & Standards: Passenger Vehicles
Table 73 U.S. Consensus Codes & Standards: Passenger Vehicles (Continued)
Table 74 Relationship of Catalyst Loading by Weight To Membrane Electrolyte by Meter
Table 75 Platinum Loading and Platinum Costs: Per Watt, Per Kilowatt, Per 100 Kilowatt
Table 76 Relationship of One Ounce of Platinum Loading To Kilowatts of Power
Table 77 Carbon Nanotube Manufacturers, 2009
Table 78 Advantages of Aligned Carbon Nanotube (acnt) Mea
Table 79 Major Palladium Producers, 2005
Table 80 Nano-ruthenium Fuel Cell Applications
Table 81 Nanostructured SOFC MEA Materials
Table 82 Rare-earth Oxide Prices in 2009
Table 83 Top 40 Fuel Cell Companies, 2009
Table 83 Top 40 Fuel Cell Companies, 2009 (Continued)
Table 83 Top 40 Fuel Cell Companies, 2009 (Continued)
Table 84 Fuel Cell & Nanotechnology Stocks
Table 84 Fuel Cell & Nanotechnology Stocks (Continued)
Table 85 Top Government Programs, 2009-2014
Table 85 Top Government Programs, 2009-2014 (Continued)
Table 86 Top PEMFC Companies, 2009
Table 86 Top PEMFC Companies, 2009 (Continued)
Table 86 Top PEMFC Companies, 2009 (Continued)
Table 87 Top 30 DMFC Companies, 2009
Table 87 Top 30 DMFC Companies, 2009 (Continued)
Table 88 Top 30 SOFC, Mcfc, Pafc Companies
Table 88 Top 30 SOFC, Mcfc, Pafc Companies (Continued)
Table 88 Top 30 SOFC, Mcfc, Pafc Companies (Continued)
Table 89 Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Manufacturers
Table 90 Top Fuel Cell Material Companies
Table 91 Top 40 Hydrogen Energy Companies
Table 91 Top 40 Hydrogen Energy Companies (Continued)
Table 92 Estimated United States Hydrogen Production Capacity, 2003 and 2006
Table 93 Top Stationary Fuel Cell Companies
Table 93 Top Stationary Fuel Cell Companies (Continued)
Table 93 Top Stationary Fuel Cell Companies (Continued)
Table 94 Top Portable Fuel Cell Companies
Table 94 Top Portable Fuel Cell Companies (Continued)
Table 95 Top Vehicle Fuel Cell Companies
Table 95 Top Vehicle Fuel Cell Companies (Continued)
Table 95 Top Vehicle Fuel Cell Companies (Continued)
Table 95 Top Vehicle Fuel Cell Companies (Continued)
Table 96 Methods of Manufacturing PEMFC & DMFC Nano Fuel Cell Components
Table 97 Fuel Cell Nano Manufacturing Processes
Table 98 Methods of Manufacturing SOFC Nano Cell Components
Table 99 Tape Casting Machine Manufacturer
Table 100 Evaluation/testing/analysis Equipment
Table 101 Manufacturing/processing Technologies
Table 102 Capacitor/electricity Storage Technology
Table 103 Balance of Plant and Related Equipment
Table 104 Heat Utilization/thermal Technology
Table 105 Comparison of PEMFC Stack Cost Per Kilowatt
Table 106 Component Cost For 80-kw PEMFC, 2008
Table 107 Membrane Electrode Assembly Cost by Major Component, 2007
Table 108 MEA Manufacturing Dollar Cost Per Kilowatt, 2007
Table 109 Dollar Cost Per Kilowatt by Component For MEA Manufacturing For 80kw PEMFC Stack
Table 110 MEA Costs 2009
Table 111 Cost Estimates For a 5kw SOFC, 2008
Table 112 Cost of Yttria-stabilized Zirconia (ysz) Nanopowder
Table 113 Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Stack Cost Estimate, 2008
Table 114 Soldi Oxide Fuel Cell Process Economics, 2008
Table 115 Component Cost of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell, 2009
Table 116 Economic Summary of 2-kw SOFC Residential Co-generator
Table 117 SOFC Stack Material Costs, 2008
Table 118 Reported SOFC Stack Costs, 2008
Table 119 Estimated Hydrogen Production Costs, 2008
Table 119 Estimated Hydrogen Production Costs, 2008 (Continued)
Table 120 Hydrogen Storage and Supply Technologies
Table 121 Membership of International Partnership For The Hydrogen Economy
Table 122 Global Daily Hydrogen Production by Feedstock, 2007
Table 123 H2 and Co2 Production From Coal and Gas, 2007
Table 124 Current Processes For Producing Hydrogen
Table 125 Cost Estimates For Six Types of Station Equipment, 2008
Table 126 California –shanghai Comparison For Hydrogen Delivery
Table 127 Hydrogen Storage Prices
Table 128 Hydrogen Applications
Table 129 Hydrogen Production Nanotechnology
Table 130 Doe On-board H2 Storage, 2007 Status & 2010 and 2015 Targets
Table 130 Doe On-board H2 Storage, 2007 Status & 2010 and 2015 Targets (Continued)
Table 131 Hydrogen Storage Issues
Table 132 Nanotechnology For Hydrogen Storage
Table 132 Nanotechnology For Hydrogen Storage (Continued)
Table 133 Nano-enabled Hydrogen Storage Materials
Table 134 Fuel Cell Patents, H2 Storage and Nanotechnolgy U.S. Patents by Country, Through August 2008
Table 135 Top Fuel Cell Patent Holders
Table 136 100 Nano-related Fuel Cell Patents
Table 136 100 Nano-related Fuel Cell Patents (Continued)
Table 136 100 Nano-related Fuel Cell Patents (Continued)
Table 136 100 Nano-related Fuel Cell Patents (Continued)
Table 136 100 Nano-related Fuel Cell Patents (Continued)
Table 136 100 Nano-related Fuel Cell Patents (Continued)
Table 136 100 Nano-related Fuel Cell Patents (Continued)
Table 136 100 Nano-related Fuel Cell Patents (Continued)
Table 136 100 Nano-related Fuel Cell Patents (Continued)
Table 136 100 Nano-related Fuel Cell Patents (Continued)
Table 136 100 Nano-related Fuel Cell Patents (Continued)
Table 136 100 Nano-related Fuel Cell Patents (Continued)
Table 136 100 Nano-related Fuel Cell Patents (Continued)
Table 136 100 Nano-related Fuel Cell Patents (Continued)
Table 136 100 Nano-related Fuel Cell Patents (Continued)
Table 137 Nano-catalyst Research For Fuel Cells, 2005-2009
Table 138 Direct Hydrogen Conversion Reactions: Chemical Energy To Electrical Energy
Table 139 PEMFC System Cost by Major Component, 2008
Table 140 PEMFC Membrane Electrode Assembly Component Costs, 2008
Table 141 Vehicle Cathode Air Blower Goals
Table 142 Balance-of-plant Components and Major Manufacturers
Table 143 Membrane Electrode Assembly Components & Functions
Table 144 MEA Layers
Table 145 MEA Manufacturing Gaps, 2008
Table 146 Impacts of Nanotechnology Fuel Cell Energy
Table 147 Nanomaterials in Membrane Electrode Assemblies
Table 148 Nanotechnology For PEMFC Anodes: Material, Benefit, Source
Table 149 Bipolar Plate Functions
Table 150 Bipolar Plate Requirements
Table 151 Bipolar Plate Barriers, Needs, and Nano Application
Table 152 Bipolar Plate Nanomaterials
Table 153 Manufacturing Gaps For High-speed Bipolar Plate Processes, 2008
Table 154 Catalysts Needs and Barriers
Table 155 Nano Catalysts For PEMFC
Table 155 Nano Catalysts For PEMFC (Continued)
Table 155 Nano Catalysts For PEMFC (Continued)
Table 155 Nano Catalysts For PEMFC (Continued)
Table 155 Nano Catalysts For PEMFC (Continued)
Table 156 Needs For New Fuel Cell Cathode Catalyst Automotive Applications
Table 157 Nanotechnology For Cathodes
Table 157 Nanotechnology For Cathodes (Continued)
Table 157 Nanotechnology For Cathodes (Continued)
Table 158 Pbi Advantages For PEMFC
Table 159 Nanotechnology For PEMFC Membranes
Table 159 Nanotechnology For PEMFC Membranes (Continued)
Table 159 Nanotechnology For PEMFC Membranes (Continued)
Table 159 Nanotechnology For PEMFC Membranes (Continued)
Table 159 Nanotechnology For PEMFC Membranes (Continued)
Table 159 Nanotechnology For PEMFC Membranes (Continued)
Table 159 Nanotechnology For PEMFC Membranes (Continued)
Table 159 Nanotechnology For PEMFC Membranes (Continued)
Table 160 Gas Diffusion Layer Nanotechnology
Table 161 Manufacturing Gaps For High-speed Sealing Techniques
Table 162 DMFC Anode Nanomaterials
Table 163 DMFC Nanostructured Catalyst
Table 164 Membranes For Direct Methanol Fuel Cells
Table 165 DMFC Membrane Nanotechnology
Table 166 SOFC Nanotechnology Benefits and Barriers, 2009
Table 167 SOFC Cost Reduction Research Priorities
Table 168 Materials Manufacturing Research
Table 168 Materials Manufacturing Research (Continued)
Table 169 SOFC Anode Materials
Table 169 SOFC Anode Materials (Continued)
Table 170 Anode Research, 2008
Table 171 Solid Oxide Cathode Materials
Table 172 Cathode Research, 2008
Table 172 Cathode Research, 2008
Table 173 Solid Oxide Nano Electrolyte Materials
Table 174 SOFC Electrodes Research
Table 175 Solid Oxide Interconnect Materials, 2008
Table 176 Interconnects Research, 2006-2008
Table 176 Interconnects Research, 2006-2008 (Continued)
Table 176 Interconnects Research, 2006-2008 (Continued)
Table 176 Interconnects Research, 2006-2008 (Continued)
Table 177 Solid Oxide Seal Materials, 2008
Table 178 Seals Research, 2006-2008
Table 178 Seals Research, 2006-2008 (Continued)
Table 178 Seals Research, 2006-2008 (Continued)
Table 179 Catalyst Research
Table 180 Other U.S. Solid Oxide Research Projects, 2006-2008
Table 180 Other U.S. Solid Oxide Research Projects, 2006-2008 (Continued)
Table 180 Other U.S. Solid Oxide Research Projects, 2006-2008 (Continued)
Table 180 Other U.S. Solid Oxide Research Projects, 2006-2008 (Continued)
Table 180 Other U.S. Solid Oxide Research Projects, 2006-2008 (Continued)
Table 180 Other U.S. Solid Oxide Research Projects, 2006-2008 (Continued)
Table 181 U.S. Regulatory Agencies For Hydrodgen Infrastrucutre
Table 181 U.S. Regulatory Agencies For Hydrodgen Infrastrucutre (Continued)
Table 182 Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Energy Organizations by Region, 2008
Table 183 Nano-related Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Energy Organizations by Region, 2008
Table 184 Nations by Region in Fuel Cells, Hydrogen Energy and Nanotechnology
Table 185 Fuel Cell, H2 Energy and Nanotechnology Development by Region & Country, 2009
Table 186 Top Twenty Countries in Nanotechnology For Fuel Cells and Hydrogen Energy, 2009
Table 187 Other Countries Nanotechnology, Fuel Cells and Hydrogen Energy, 2009
Table 188 Value of Fuel Cell, Hydrogen Energy and Related Nanotechnology by Leading Nation Expenditures, 2009
Table 189 U.S. Fuel Cell, Hydrogen Energy and Related Nanotechnology Organizations, 2008
Table 190 U.S. Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Energy Organizations by Technology Application, 2008
Table 191 U.S. Fuel Cell Technology Expenditures PEMFC, DMFC, SOFC, Hydrogen Energy, 2008
Table 192 U.S. Range of Spending On Nanomaterials As a Percentage of Nano-related Spending by Fuel Cell Technology: PEMFC, DMFC, SOFC, and Hydrogen Energy, 2008
Table 193 Expenditures of U.S. Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Energy Organizations by Type, 2008
Table 194 U.S. Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Energy by Application
Table 195 Key To The Country Tables
Table 196 Example of How To Read Table Keys
Table 197 U.S. Fuel Cell, Hydrogen Energy and Related Nanotechnology Organizations, 2009
Table 198 Canadian Fuel Cell, Hydrogen Energy and Related Nanotechnology, 2008
Table 199 Mexican Fuel Cell, Hydrogen Energy & Related Nanotechnology, 2008
Table 200 Innovation and Devlopment Action (ida)
Table 201 EU Fuel Cells and Hydrogen Joint Technology Initiative Research Spending, 2008-2014
Table 202 Key Companies in EU Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technology Platform
Table 203 European Union Fuel Cell, Hydrogen Energy & Related Nanotechnology
Table 204 German Fuel Cell, Hydrogen Energy and Related Nanotechnology Expenditures
Table 205 German Fuel Cell, Hydrogen Energy and Relate4d Nanotechnology Organizations
Table 206 French Fuel Cell, Hydrogen Energy and Related Nanotechnology Organizations, 2009
Table 207 Austrian Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Energy Organizations by Application
Table 208 Austrian Organizations by Type and Expenditures 2008
Table 209 Austrian Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Energy by Application
Table 210 Austrian Nanotechnology, Fuel Cell and H2 Energy Organizations
Table 211 Flemish Fuel Cell, Hydrogen Energy and Related Nanotechnology Organizations
Table 212 Swiss Fuel Cell, Hydrogen Energy and Related Nanotechnology Organizations
Table 213 Danish Fuel Cell, Hydrogen Energy and Related Nanotechnology Organizations, 2009
Table 214 British Fuel Cell, Hydrogen Energy and Related Nanotechnology 2009
Table 215 Spanish Fuel Cell, Hydrogen Energy and Related Nanotechnology Organizations
Table 216 Finnish Fuel Cell, Hydrogen Energy and Related Nanotechnology Organizations
Table 217 Greek Fuel Cell, Hydrogen Energy and Related Nanotechnology Organizations
Table 218 Italian Fuel Cell, Hydrogen Energy and Related Nanotechnology Organizations
Table 219 Dutch Fuel Cell, Hydrogen Energy and Related Nanotechnology Organizations
Table 220 Norweigian Fuel Cell, Hydrogen Energy and Related Nanotechnology Organizations
Table 221 Polish Fuel Cell, Hydrogen Energy and Related Nanotechnology Organizations
Table 222 Romanian Fuel Cell, Hydrogen Energy and Related Nanotechnology Organizations
Table 223 Russian Fuel Cell, Hydrogen Energy and Related Nanotechnology Organizations
Table 224 Japanese Fuel Cell, Hydrogen Energy and Nanotechnology, 2008
Table 225 Chinese Fuel Cell, Hydrogen Energy and Related Nanotechnology Organizations
Table 226 Korean Fuel Cell, Hydrogen Energy and Related Nanotechnology Organizatons
Table 227 Table Taiwanese Fuel Cell, Hydrogen Energy and Related Nanotechnology Organizations
Table 228 Singapore’s Fuel Cell, Hydrogen Energy and Related Nanotechnology Organizations
Table 229 Israeli Fuel Cell, Hydrogen Energy and Related Nanotechnology Organizations
Table 230 Indian Fuel Cell, Hydrogen Energy and Related Nanotechnology Organizations
Table 231 Table Turkish Fuel Cell, Hydrogen Energy and Related Nanotechnology Organizations
Table 232 Table Australian Fuel Cell, Hydrogen Energy and Related Nanotechnology Organizations
Table 233 Brazilian Fuel Cell, Hydrogen Energy and Related Nanotechnology Organizations
Table 234 African Fuel Cell, Hydrogen Energy and Related Nanotechnology Organizations
Table 235 Other Fuel Cell, Hydrogen Energy and Related Nanotechnology Organizations by Country

LIST OF FIGURES

Summary Figure a Nanotechnology, Fuel Cells and Hydrogen Energy by Number of Organizations Involved, 2008
Summary Figure b Share of Nano-enabled Fuel Cells and Hydrogen Energy With That of The Total, 2008
Figure 1 Technology Applications Value and Nano Technology Value, 2008
Figure 2 World Distribution of Organizations Involved in Fuel Cells, Hydrogen Energy and Related Nanotechnologies, 2009
Figure 3 Top 20 Countries in Fuel Cell & Hydrogen Energy Development
Figure 4 Fuel Cell Technology Market Value by Nation, 2008 (total Value $8.8 Billion)
Figure 5 Value of Fuel Cell Technology (pemfc, DMFC, SOFC), Hydrogen Energy, and Related Nanotechnology, 2008 ($ Millions)
Figure 6 Percent Hydrogen Use by Fuel Cell Application, 2014
Figure 7 World Value of All Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Energy and Nanotechnology by Application, 2008 ($ Millions)
Figure 8 World Fuel Cell & Hydrogen Energy Technology by Application 2008
Figure 9 Global Electric Power Generation Capacity, 2009 (gigawatts)
Figure 10 U.S. Stationary Market Shares: Industrial, Residential and Commercial, 2009
Figure 11 Residential Fuel Cell Systems, 2007
Figure 12 PEMFC Fuel Cell Chp Scheme and Japanese Residential Fuel Cell Products, 2009
Figure 13 Market Shares of Japanese Residential Demonstration Project, 2008
Figure 14 Market Shares of Japanese Fuel Cell Market by Installer, 2007
Figure 15 Technology Status of Fuel Cells For Transportation, 2007
Figure 16 European H2 & Fuel Cell Demonstration Roadmap For Road Vehicles, 2008-2015
Figure 17 Fuel Cell Aviation Applications
Figure 18 European Fuel Cell Bus Targets, 2010-2015
Figure 19 Percent Hydrogen Use by Fuel Cell Application, 2014
Figure 20 Hydrogen Energy Applications
Figure 21 Steps in Manufacturing Fuel Cell Platinum Electrodes
Figure 22 Tape Casting Steps
Figure 23 PEMFC Component Systems and Percentage of Cost, 2007
Figure 24 Membrane Electrode Assembly Components & Percentage of Cost, 2007
Figure 25 Percentage Cost of Membrane Electrode Assembly Manufacturing by Component, 2007
Figure 26 Percentage Component Cost in MEA Manufacturing
Figure 27 SOFC System Component Costs, 2009
Figure 28 Natural Gas Reforming Hydrogen Production System
Figure 29 Hydrogen Production Goals & Status, 2008
Figure 30 Nanotechnology Patents by Country, Through Aug 1, 2008
Figure 31 Hydrogen Production and Storage Patents by Country, Through Aug 1, 2008
Figure 32 Fuel Cell Patents by Country, Through Aug 1, 2008
Figure 33 Fuel Cell Patents by Entity, Through August 1, 2008
Figure 34 Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell
Figure 35 Five Layer Membrane Electrode Assembly
Figure 36 PEMFC With Carbon Nanoparticles
Figure 37 Electrolyte Structure in Planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell
Figure 38 U.S. Hydrogen Initiative $266 Million Budget Expenditures by Application, 2009
Figure 39 U.S. Doe Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (eere) Hydrogen Program Budget 2004-2009
Figure 40 Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Energy Organizations by Region, 2008
Figure 41 Nanotechnology For Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Energy by Number of Organization by Region, 2008
Figure 42 Top Twenty Countries in Nanotechnology For Fuel Cells and Hydrogen Energy, 2009
Figure 43 U.S. Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Energy Organizations by Technology
Figure 44 Fuel Cell Nanotechnology, Technology and Total Value, 2008
Figure 45 Expenditures on Nanotechnology Related to Fuel Cells and Hydrogen Energy, 2008
Figure 46 Expenditures of U.S. Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Energy Organizations by Type, 2008
Figure 47 U.S. Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Energy Organizations by Application
Figure 48 JTI Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Energy Budget, 2008-2013
Figure 49 Distribution of Fch JTI R&D Expenditures, 2008-2014
Figure 50 Value of German Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Energy Industry by Organization, 2008
Figure 51 Austrian Fuel Cell & Hydrogen Energy Organization by Application


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