Next Vaccines & Pipeline Developments Examined by Kalorama Information17 Jul 2012 • by Natalie Aster
According to the report “What's Next In Vaccines (Malaria, Diabetes, Alzheimer's, Allergies and 30 Other Targets in the 2012-2021 Vaccine Pipeline)” by Kalorama Information, attenuated viruses consist of live micro-organisms that have been cultivated under conditions which disable their virulent properties. They typically provoke more durable immunological responses and are therefore the preferred type of vaccine for healthy adults.
There are more than two dozen vaccine-preventable diseases for which vaccines have been formulated. Of these vaccines, four different types are currently available:
- Attenuated (weakened) live viruses;
- Killed (inactivated) viruses or bacteria;
- Toxoid vaccines contain a toxin produced by the bacterium;
- Genetically engineered/modified vaccines;
- Bacteria-based vaccines.
What's Next In Vaccines (Malaria, Diabetes, Alzheimer's, Allergies and 30 Other Targets in the 2012-2021 Vaccine Pipeline)
Published: June, 2012
Price: US$ 3.995,00
Jenner’s cowpox vaccine represented the first use of a live, attenuated of detoxification followed by a long period of psycho-social therapy. Some medications such as Reckitt Benckiser’s Suboxone (buprenorphine and naloxone) may be prescribed to curb physical cravings, however many drug abuse specialists prefer not to use these aids as they do not address psychological cravings and prescriptions are often re-sold by drug addicts to fund their addiction. (Suboxone has a “street value” among recovering addicts who are unable to obtain prescriptions).
Methadone is another option for persons with opiate addictions as it would curb physical cravings; however, methadone is typically reserved for those with the most severe addictions as its usage is associated with a range of practical problems including a high likehood of patients becoming addicted to methadone, the need for patients to utilize methadone for long period of time that can reach one to two years or more, and the necessity for patients to report daily to specially licensed methadone clinics ro receive the drug. Most clinics are located in low rent urban areas, discouraging many middle class drug users from taking advantage of this option so that as of mid 2012, methadone remained an option of last resort for most opiate addicts.
While a vaccine for addiction would work in a similar manner as these medications – that is, it would not reverse a hereditary disposition towards drugs and alcohol but could potentially keep drugs that enter the body from reaching the brain thus preventing the high from being experienced – it would offer an advantage over a daily medication as it could not be re-sold by addicts. However, work in this area is limited since the potential return on an addiction vaccine, which would be used by a relatively small portion of the population compared with a prophylactic vaccine that would be administered universally, is quite limited compared with the return on an anti-addiction drug that would be taken chronically. For this reason, pharmaceutical investment in this area is relatively low and most research is government sponsored.
Nonetheless, there have been some promising developments. In April 2006, the FDA approved Vivitrol (naltrexone extended release injectable suspension), a product produced by Alkermes. Vivitrol was the first injectable drug given once per month to treat alcohol dependence, and is indicated for alcohol-dependent persons who are able to abstain from drinking in an outpatient setting and are not actively drinking when starting treatment. It is also intended for use in combination with psychosocial support, such as counseling or group therapy.
More information can be found in the report “What's Next In Vaccines (Malaria, Diabetes, Alzheimer's, Allergies and 30 Other Targets in the 2012-2021 Vaccine Pipeline)” by Kalorama Information.
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