Thin Film Solar Cells 2016

Date: September 1, 2016
Pages: 240
Price:
US$ 850.00
Publisher: Aruvian's R'search
Report type: Strategic Report
Delivery: E-mail Delivery (PDF), Hard Copy Mail Delivery, CD-ROM Mail Delivery
ID: TB913C475CFEN
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Thin Film Solar Cells 2016
Aruvian Research’s report Thin Film Solar Cells 2016 earmarks the immense potential that the technology of thin film solar cells holds for the future of mankind and the crucial impact it will have on the process of introduction of solar energy into large scale arenas of the industrialized economies. The report on Thin Film Solar Cells initiates with a strong theoretical understanding of the Solar Cell system and their subsequent propagation into photovoltaic systems including their applications derived from generational leaps as first to third generation cells. The report presents the entire gamut of PV cells in a structured family tree for easy interpretation and also delves into the applications of PV Technology in isolated environment.

It also devotes an entire in depth section to the technical aspects of Thin Film Solar Cells systems including their history as well as mechanism, general operation principles and the new innovations in architecture design of Thin Film Solar Cells which have opened up new markets for solar power systems. These are further explained in the efficient design choices of various configurations and new ideas contributed in this field.

The research report looks at the role of P3HT which is crucial to the development of Thin Film Solar Cells and also at the various properties of silicon that are responsible for making silicon an excellent material in photovoltaics. An analysis of thin film crystalline silicon solar cells, CIGS/CIS-based thin film solar cells, dye-sensitized solar cells, and the latest technological innovation of nanotechnology-enhanced thin film solar cells, is what sets this research report apart from all others.

The report has separate analysis on the various manufacturers in this market based on their specialty. Overall, Aruvian Research’s report Thin Film Solar Cells 2016 is a very comprehensive tool for understanding this technology in a in depth manner and deliver thought provoking views on the marvels of this field which is nature’s helping hand lent to mankind in order to preserve a way of life which is sustainable as well as in sync with our environment.
1 A. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

B. INTRODUCTION TO PHOTOVOLTAICS

B.1 Overview
B.2 Looking at Solar Electricity
B.3 Photovoltaic Systems
B.4 Looking at the Balance of System (BOS)
B.5 Analyzing the 3 Generations of Photovoltaic Cells
B.5.1 First Generation PV Cells
B.5.2 Second Generation PV Cells
B.5.3 Third Generation PV Cells
B.6 What are Concentrator Cells?
B.7 Analyzing Concentrated Photovoltaics
B.8 Applications of Solar Cells
B.9 Types of Solar Cells
B.10 PV Technology in Isolated Generation
B.11 Looking at Thin Film Solar Cells
B.12 PV Family Tree – A Diagrammatic Representation

C. GLOBAL MARKET OVERVIEW OF SOLAR PV CELLS

C.1 Market Profile
C.2 Market Size
C.3 Growth Patterns of the Market
C.4 Market Statistics – Production Side
C.5 Commercialization Potential & Market Development
C.6 Future of the Market

D. POINT OF DISCUSSION: WHY ARE SOLAR CELLS BASED ON SEMICONDUCTORS?

E. LOOKING AT THE PROPERTIES OF SILICON

E.1 Why Silicon is the Basis for Photovoltaics?
E.2 Looking at Crystalline Silicon
E.3 Looking at Amorphous Silicon

F. ROLE OF ORGANIC SEMICONDUCTORS

G. WHAT ARE THIN FILM SOLAR CELLS?

G.1 Overview
G.2 Categories of Thin Film Solar Cells
G.2.1 Amorphous Silicon
G.2.2 Cadmium Telluride
G.2.3 Copper Indium Gallium Selenide
G.2.4 Dye-sensitized Solar Cell
G.2.5 Organic Solar Cell
G.2.6 Thin-film Silicon
G.3 Structure of the Thin Film Solar Cell
G.4 Efficiency and Cost of Thin Film Solar Cells
G.5 Production of Thin Film Solar Cells
G.6 Looking at Characterization Techniques and Electrical Qualities of Thin Film Solar Cells

H. ROLE OF P3HT

H.1 Overview
H.2 Electrical Properties and Organization of Thin Film Solar Cells
H.3 Optical Properties and HOMO, LUMO Levels in P3HT
H.4 Role of Silicon & P3HT Heterojunction in Photovoltaics
H.4.1 Junctions with Semiconductors
H.4.1.1 MIS Junction
H.4.1.2 Ohmic Contact
H.4.1.3 p-i-n Junction
H.4.1.4 p-n Junction
H.4.1.5 Schottky Contact
H.4.1.6 Semiconductor Heterojunctions
H.4.2 Band Diagrams Based on Silicon and P3HT

I. ANALYSIS OF THIN FILM CRYSTALLINE SILICON SOLAR CELLS

I.1 Overview
I.2 Looking at Thin Film Polycrystalline Silicon Solar Cells
I.2.1 Formation of Microcrystalline Silicon Thin Film Solar Cells and Role of Low Temperature
I.2.2 Carrier Transport Process in Microcrystalline Silicon Thin Film Solar Cells
I.2.3 Fabrication Rate for Microcrystalline Silicon Thin Film Solar Cells
I.2.4 Light Trapping Quality of Microcrystalline Silicon Thin Film Solar Cells
I.3 Microcrystalline Silicon Thin Film Solar Cells’ Applications in Hybrid Solar Cells
I.3.1 Looking at Silicon Hybrid Solar Cells
I.3.2 Developing Techniques for Microcrystalline Silicon Deposits on Large Area Substrates
I.4 Brief Look at Thin Film Silicon Triple Junction Solar Cells
I.5 Summing Up

J. ANALYSIS OF CIGS/CIS-BASED THIN FILM SOLAR CELLS

J.1 Overview of CIGS Photovoltaic Cells
J.2 Structure of a CIGS Thin Film Solar Cell
J.3 Material Characteristics of CIGS Solar Cells
J.4 Phase Diagram
J.5 Defects and Impurities in CIGS Solar Cells
J.6 Techniques for Manufacturing Thin Film Solar Cells
J.6.1 Coevaporation
J.6.2 Sequential Technique
J.7 CIGS Fabrication Technologies
J.7.1 Cell Processing
J.7.2 Module Processing
J.8 Summing Up

K. ANALYSIS OF DYE-SENSITIZED SOLAR CELLS

K.1 Overview
K.2 Comparing Semiconductor Solar Cells vs. Dye Sensitized Solar Cells
K.3 Fabrication Process
K.4 How the Dye Sensitized Solar Cell Operates
K.5 Efficiency of Dye Sensitized Solar Cells
K.6 Degradation in UV Radiation
K.7 Pros and Cons

L. NANOTECHNOLOGY-ENHANCED THIN FILM SOLAR CELLS

M. CASE STUDY: POTENTIAL OF THIN FILM SOLAR CELLS GROWTH ON THE MOON

N. MANUFACTURERS OF CADMIUM TELLURIDE (CDTE) SOLAR CELLS

N.1 Antec Solar Energy AG
N.2 AVA Solar/Abound Solar
N.3 Calyxo GMBH
N.4 Canrom Photovoltaics
N.5 First Solar
N.6 PrimeStar Solar

O. MANUFACTURERS OF COPPER INDIUM GALLIUM SELENIDE (CIGS/CIS) SOLAR CELLS

O.1 Ascent Solar

O.2 AVANCIS

O.3 Global Solar Energy

O.4 ISET

O.5 Johanna Solar
O.6 Miasolé
O.7 SoloPower

P. MANUFACTURERS OF THIN FILM AMORPHOUS SILICON (A-SI) SOLAR CELLS

P.1 Bangkok Solar
P.2 China Solar Energy Holdings
P.3 CSG Solar
P.4 EPV Solar
P.5 Green Energy Technology
P.6 Heliodomi SA
P.7 HelioGrid
P.8 Inventux Technologies AG
P.9 Jinneng Solar
P.10 Kaneka Solartech
P.11 Lambda Energia
P.12 Moser Baer Solar Limited
P.13 Nexpower
P.14 Polar PV
P.15 QS Solar
P.16 Sinonar
P.17 Solar Plus
P.18 Sunfilm AG
P.19 Sunner Solar
P.20 Suntech Power
P.21 TerraSolar, Inc.
P.22 XsunX

Q. MANUFACTURERS OF RAW MATERIALS & EQUIPMENT SUPPLIERS

Q.1 Manufacturers of Transparent Conducting Oxide (TCO) Glass

Q.1.1 AFG

Q.1.2 Asahi

Q.1.3 CTDC

Q.1.4 XinYiGlass
Q.2 Manufacturers Ethylene Vinyl Acetate (EVA)
Q.2.1 Bridgestone
Q.2.2 Dupont
Q.2.3 Etimex
Q.2.4 Mitsui Chemicals
Q.2.5 Tecnofimes

R. APPENDIX

S. GLOSSARY OF TERMS

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1: A Solar Cell Made from a Monocrystalline Silicon Wafer
Figure 2: Installed PV Capacity by Technology in 2015
Figure 3: Major Policy Drivers for Solar PV in 2015
Figure 4: Generation Cost of Solar Electricity in Comparison with Other Power Sources
Figure 5: Price Offers for Solar PV and Wind Onshore Power Plants by Countries
Figure 6: Global Solar PV Installed Capacity (in GW), 2000-2015
Figure 7: Total Solar PV Installed Capacity (in GW), 2000-2015
Figure 8: Annual PV Installations by Regions (in Percentage), 2010-2015
Figure 9: Leading 10 Solar PV Markets by Total Installed Share at end-2015 (%)
Figure 10: Contribution of PV to the Electricity Demand in EU 28 in 2015 (in Percentage)
Figure 11: Capacity Additions of Leading 10 Solar PV Markets in Europe (%), 2015 & 2020
Figure 12: Annual Solar PV Market Scenarios till 2020 (in GW)
Figure 13: Total Solar PV Market Scenarios till 2020 (in GW)
Figure 14: Annual Solar PV Industry Shares for High and Low Industry Scenario till 2020 (in GW)
Figure 15: Leading 20 Countries in Solar PV Additions during High and Low Scenarios (in GW), 2016-2020
Figure 16: Power Density Spectrum of the Sunlight at the Surface of Earth (Light Gray) and its Fraction Available for Conversion by a Crystalline Silicon Solar Cell (Dark Gray)
Figure 17: Typical Shape of the Density of States in Amorphous Silicon (Continuous Lines). Dashed Lines Represent the Case of a Crystalline Semiconductor with Similar Band Gap (Quadratic Band Edges)
Figure 18: Diagram of a Part of a Fully Conjugated Polymer (Polyacetylene) showing its Two Possible States
Figure 19: I-V Characteristics of an Ideal Solar Cell in Dark and Under Illumination
Figure 20: Equivalent Circuit for a Real Solar Cell under Illumination
Figure 21: I-V Curve & Power Output of a Non-Ideal Solar Cell under Illumination Demonstrating Characteristic Quantities (Rs = 10Ω, Rsh = 1×103Ω)
Figure 22: Formula of Regio-Regular, Head-to-Tail poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (in short, P3HT)
Figure 23: Influence of Process Parameters on the Thickness of Spin-Coated P3HT Layers
Figure 24: Band Diagrams of Ohmic Junction before (left) and after (right) Contact between a Metal and a Doped Semiconductor
Figure 25: Band Diagram of a p-n Junction before (left) and after (right) Contact
Figure 26: Band Diagrams of Schottky Junction before (left) and after (right) Contact between a Metal and a Doped Semiconductor
Figure 27: Band Diagrams of Silicon/P3HT Hybrid Devices in Flat-Band Conditions
Figure 28: Relationship between Grain Size and Open Circuit Voltage (Voc) in Solar Cells
Figure 29: Variation of Crystalline Structures in Microcrystalline Silicon as a Function of SiH4 Gas Concentration. Small Black Dots Represent the Amorphous State
Figure 30: Variation of Voc with Film Thickness
Figure 31: Cross-Sections through Light-Trapping Microcrystalline Silicon Solar Cell Devices. (a) First Generation (Flat Back Reflector); (b) Second Generation (Textured Back Reflector, Thinner Polycrystalline Silicon Layer)
Figure 32: Absorption Efficiency of a 4.7 μm Cell
Figure 33: A Next-Generation Tandem Model
Figure 34: Current-Voltage Characteristic of an Amorphous – Microcrystalline Silicon Stacked Next Generation Hybrid Cell with a Transparent Intermediate Layer
Figure 35: Crystal Structure of Chalcopyrite CIGS
Figure 36: Pseudobinary cut Cu2Se-In2Se3 of Ternary Phase Diagram
Figure 37: Setup including Process Control Units
Figure 38: Nanotechnology Thin-film Solar Cells Publications by Countries, 2015

LIST OF TABLES

Table 1: Cost Breakdown for a 100 kWP-10 MWP Concentrator Photovoltaics Installation
Table 2: Module Component Materials Cost for Thin Film Cadmium Telluride Systems
Table 3: Reported Positions of P3HT HOMO with Respect to the Vacuum Level
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