Thermal and Digestion Waste-to-Energy Technologies Worldwide

Date: March 22, 2011
Pages: 224
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Publisher: SBI
Report type: Strategic Report
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Thermal and Digestion Waste-to-Energy Technologies Worldwide
Each year the world generates more than 2.1 billion tons of waste, disposes of most of that waste it in landfills, and allows it to decay and release methane (a powerful greenhouse gas that drives climate change), carbon dioxide, volatile organic compounds, odors, groundwater quality pollutants, and a host of other air, water, and soil pollutants. Locked inside of the 2.1 billion tons of waste is approximately 24.5 quadrillion Btu of energy - enough heat to generate about 10% of the electricity consumed annually around the globe. Meanwhile, in many developed nations, the availability of landfill capacity has been flat or steadily decreasing due to regulatory, siting, and environmental permitting constraints on new landfills and landfill expansions. As a result, new approaches to waste management are rapidly being written into public and institutional policies at local to national levels.

Landfilling, which is still employed at the overwhelming majority of global waste management facilities in developed nations, generally performs well in terms of throughput, public health, and safety. But many current and widespread waste management practices are mediocre or even poor performers in terms of energy efficiency and environmental performance. For instance, the conventional municipal solid waste chain is commonly characterized by moderate to long haul distances, which generate substantial greenhouse gas emissions, followed by long-term storage in a landfill, releasing methane and other pollutants. In developing nations, landfills can pose major public health concerns, and can in some cases represent a significant fire hazard due to spontaneous ignition. Many liquid waste streams, especially in the livestock and food production industries, are only minimally treated prior to discharge. Dairy wastes, for instance, can result in excessive nutrient loading of farm fields, while municipal wastewater, especially in developing nations, may contain high levels of biochemical oxygen demand, bacteria, and other harmful pollutants.

Waste to energy technologies - incineration, gasification, plasma gasification, pyrolysis, and anaerobic digestion - provide a convenient solution to many of these waste management issues. For instance, installation of a waste to energy conversion facility near a large urban center can reduce the number of truck, train, or barge trips to landfills, reduce the volume of new material that is being stored in landfills, and reduce the proportion of organic matter that is stored in a landfill, which in turn reduces the production rates of landfill methane. Liquid waste to energy technologies can also reduce the concentration of water quality constituents in treated effluent, by substantially reducing bacterial loading, biochemical oxygen demand, and other constituents.

Bolstered by global concern and policy actions relating to climate change, waste to energy technologies also support low-carbon and in some cases carbon-neutral energy production. As a result, the global market for waste to energy technologies has evidenced substantial growth over the last five years, increasing from $4.83 billion in 2006, to 7.08 billion in 2010 with continued market growth through the global economic downturn. Over the coming decade, growth trends are expected to continue, led by expansion in the US, European, Chinese, and Indian markets. By 2021, based on continued growth in Asian markets combined with the maturation of European waste management regulations and European and US climate mitigation strategies, the annual global market for waste to energy technologies will exceed $27 billion, for all technologies combined.

The market expansion projected for waste to energy technologies maintains roots in the waste industry as well as the alternative fuels/power industry. Demand for waste management solutions and for alternative energy sources thereby coalesce to drive demand for waste to energy technologies. A significant advantage of these dual drivers is that demand for waste to energy technologies is resilient. For example, even in the unlikely event that demand for alternative energy slackens over the coming decade, the demand for waste management solutions would remain, and would continue to drive the installation of new waste to energy facilities.

Thermal and Digestion Waste-to-Energy Technologies Worldwide contains comprehensive data on the worldwide market for waste to energy technologies (incineration, gasification, pyrolysis and thermal depolymerization, and anaerobic digestion), including historic (2006-2010) and forecast (2011-2021) market size data in terms of the dollar value of product shipments, with breakdowns at the national level for major markets. The report identifies key trends affecting the marketplace, along with trends driving growth, and central challenges to further market development. The report also provides company profiles for waste to energy leaders in municipal solid waste and other waste management industries.
CHAPTER 1: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Scope

Global Waste and Management and Role of Waste to Energy

Figure 1-1: Annual Per Capita Municipal Waste Generated for OECD Countries (Metric Tonnes)

Waste to Energy Feedstocks and Technologies

Applications, Benefits, and Drawbacks of Waste to Energy Technologies

Waste to Energy Market Valuations

Incineration

Figure 1-2: Global Market for Incinerators and Incinerator Plant Ancillaries: 2006 – 2010 Historic and 2011-2021 Projected ($ Millions)

Gasification

Figure 1-3: Global Market for Gasifiers and Gasifier Plant Ancillaries: 2006 – 2010 Historic and 2011-2021 Projected ($ Millions)

Plasma Gasification

Figure 1-4: Global Market for Plasma Gasifiers and Plant Ancillaries: 2006 – 2010 Historic and 2011-2021 Projected ($ Millions)

Pyrolysis

Figure 1-5: Global Market for Pyrolysis and Pyrolysis Plant Ancillaries: 2006 – 2010 Historic and 2011-2021 Projected ($ Millions)

Anaerobic Digestion

Figure 1-6: Global Market for Anaerobic Digesters and Anaerobic Digester Ancillaries: 2006 – 2010 Historic and 2011-2021 Projected ($ Millions)

Global Waste to Energy Market Summary

Figure 1-7: Global Market for WtE Technologies; Historic (2006-2010) and Projected (2011-2021) ($ Billions)

Waste to Energy Product Pricing

Incineration

Figure 1-8: Incinerator Costs (USD)

Gasification

Figure 1-9: Gasification Costs (USD)

Plasma Gasification

Figure 1-10: Plasma Gasifier Costs (USD)

Pyrolysis

Figure 1-11: Pyrolysis Costs (USD)

Anaerobic Digestion

Figure 1-12: Anaerobic Digestion Costs, Animal Wastes/Wastewater (USD)

Figure 1–13: Anaerobic Digestion Costs, MSW (USD)

Industry Trends and WtE Financing

WtE Facilities Supply Chain

Figure 1-14: WtE Technologies, Facility Supply Chain

Figure 1–15: Municipal Solid Waste Supply Chain

Figure 1-16: Generalized Non-MSW Waste Feedstock Supply Chain

Waste to Energy Product Promotion

Job Creation

Incineration

Figure 1-17: Projected Construction and Operation Period Job Creation Rates for Incineration; 2011 to 2021 (Annual Jobs Created)

Gasification

Figure 1-18: Projected Construction and Operation Period Job Creation Rates for Gasification; 2011 to 2021 (Annual Jobs Created)

Plasma Gasification

Figure 1-19: Projected Construction and Operation Period Job Creation Rates for Plasma Gasification; 2011 to 2021 (Annual Jobs Created)

Pyrolysis

Figure 1-20: Projected Construction and Operation Period Job Creation Rates for Pyrolysis; 2011 to 2021 (Annual Jobs Created)

Anaerobic Digestion

Figure 1-21: Projected Construction and Operation Period Job Creation Rates for Anaerobic Digestion; 2011 to 2021 (Annual Jobs Created)

Waste to Energy End Users

Table 1-1: Thermal Technology End Users

Table 1-2: Anaerobic Digester End Users

Summary

Figure 1-22: Global Market for WtE Technologies; Historic (2006-2010) and Projected (2011-2021) ($ Billions)

CHAPTER 2: OVERVIEW OF WASTE TO ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES

Scope

Global Waste and Management

Figure 2-1: Annual Per Capita Municipal Waste Generated for OECD Countries (Metric Tonnes)

Role of Waste to Energy

Waste to Energy Feedstocks

Dairy Waste and Other Animal Husbandry Wastes

Table 2-1: Waste to Energy Feedstock Categories

Food Processing Wastes

Greenwaste

Hospital Waste/Biohazard

Industrial Wastes

Sanitary Waste

Municipal Solid Waste

Waste to Energy Systems

Table 2-2 Waste to Energy Technologies and Feedstocks

Table 2-3 Energy Products from Waste to Energy Technologies

Incineration

Figure 2-2: Incinerator Schematic

Gasification

Figure 2-3: Gasification Schematic

Plasma Gasification

Figure 2-4: Plasma Gasification Schematic

Pyrolysis

Figure 2-5: Pyrolysis Example Schematic

Anaerobic Digestion

Figure 2-6: Schematic of Digestion of Manure Combined with Greenwaste

Applications and Benefits of Waste to Energy Technologies

Waste Management: Mass/Volume Reduction and Avoidance of Landfilling

Power Generation

Methane Production

Liquid Fuels Production

Heat Production

Pollutant Emissions Reduction

Greenhouse Gas Emissions Management

Destruction of Harmful Microbes and Biological Agents

Land Area Requirements

Mechanical Biological Treatment

Drawbacks of Waste to Energy Technologies

Environmental Concerns

Potential Competition with Recycling

Potential Competition with Composting

Increased Pollution under Some Systems

Public Opinion

Cost/Benefit

Summary

CHAPTER 3: WASTE TO ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES – MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH

Scope

Market Assessment Methodology

Project-Based Market Evaluations

Additional Market Valuation Factors

Demand for Municipal Waste Stream Management and Waste Reduction

Figure 3-1: Historic and Projected Annual Municipal Solid Waste Generation, Global and US (Billion Tons per Year)

Reuse, Recycling, Composting, and Waste to Energy

Growth of Biomass, Food Waste, and Animal Husbandry Waste to Energy

Environmental and Social Concerns of Waste Management

Alternative Energy Growth and Demand

Waste to Energy Projects

Table 3-1: Anticipated Global WtE Projects

Factors Affecting Market Size and Growth

Feedstock Availability: landfilling reduction targets, waste stream diversion requirements, and other key waste management trends that inform feedstock availability;

Table 3-2: European Union Mandated Waste Reduction Targets

Table 3-3: Great Britain National Waste Reduction Targets

Table 3-4: New Zealand’s Adopted Waste Management Strategy

Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction requirements, targets, and strategies;

Demand for Alternative and Renewable Energy

Figure 3-2: Global Energy Consumption, Historic (2007) and Projected (Through 2035) (Quadrillion British Thermal Units per Year)

Figure 3-3: Global Historic Energy Production and Projected Increases in Renewable and Other Power Sources, 1990-2035 (Quadrillion British Thermal Units per Year)

Costs and WtE Project Economics

Public acceptance of WtE

Other Relevant Trends

WtE Technologies Markets

Global Market for Incineration

Figure 3-4: Global Market for Incinerators and Incinerator Plant Ancillaries: 2006 – 2010 Historic and 2011-2021 Projected ($ Millions)

Table 3-5: Global Market for Incinerators and Incinerator Plant Ancillaries: 2006-2010 Historic and 2011-2021 Projected ($ Millions)

Figure 3-5: Regional WtE Markets for Incineration: 2006 (Historic), 2011 (Projected), and 2021 (Projected) ($ Millions)

Table 3-6: Incinerator Market Data and Projections, Major Countries: 2006 (Historic), 2011 (Projected), and 2021 (Projected) ($ Millions)

Table 3-7: Annual Historic and Projected Global Increases in Incinerator Waste Capacity (Daily Tons) and Power Generation Capacity (MW)

Global Market for Gasification

Figure 3-6: Global Market for Gasifiers and Gasifier Plant Ancillaries: 2006 – 2010 Historic and 2011-2021 Projected ($ Millions)

Table 3-8: Global Market for Gasifiers and Gasifier Plant Ancillaries: 2006-2010 Historic and 2011-2021 Projected ($ Millions)

Figure 3-7: Regional WtE Markets for Gasification: 2006 (Historic), 2011 (Projected), and 2021 (Projected) ($ Millions)

Table 3-9: Gasification Market Data and Projections, Major Countries: 2006 (Historic), 2011 (Projected), and 2021 (Projected) ($ Millions)

Table 3-10: Annual Historic and Projected Global Increases in Gasifier Waste Capacity (Daily Tons) and Power Generation Capacity (MW)

Global Market for Plasma Gasification

Figure 3-8: Global Market for Plasma Gasifiers and Plant Ancillaries: 2006 – 2010 Historic and 2011-2021 Projected ($ Millions)

Table 3-11: Global Market for Plasma Gasifiers and Plant Ancillaries: 2006-2010 Historic and 2011-2021 Projected ($ Millions)

Figure 3-9: Regional WtE Markets for Plasma Gasification: 2006 (Historic), 2011 (Projected), and 2021 (Projected) ($ Millions)

Table 3-12: Plasma Gasification Market Data and Projections, Major Countries: 2006 (Historic), 2011 (Projected), and 2021 (Projected) ($ Millions)

Table 3-13: Annual Historic and Projected Global Increases in Plasma Gasifier Waste Capacity (Daily Tons) and Power Generation Capacity (MW)

Global Market for Pyrolysis

Figure 3-10: Global Market for Pyrolysis and Pyrolysis Plant Ancillaries: 2006 – 2010 Historic and 2011-2021 Projected ($ Millions)

Table 3-14: Global Market for Pyrolysis and Pyrolysis Plant Ancillaries: 2006-2010 Historic and 2011-2021 Projected ($ Millions)

Figure 3-11: Regional WtE Markets for Pyrolysis: 2006 (Historic), 2011 (Projected), and 2021 (Projected) ($ Millions)

Table 3-15: Pyrolysis Market Data and Projections, Major Countries: 2006 (Historic), 2011 (Projected), and 2021 (Projected) ($ Millions)

Table 3-16: Annual Historic and Projected Global Increases in Pyrolysis Waste Capacity (Daily Tons) and Power Generation Capacity (MW)

Global Market for Anaerobic Digestion

Figure 3-12: Global Market for Anaerobic Digesters and Anaerobic Digester Ancillaries: 2006 – 2010 Historic and 2011-2021 Projected ($ Millions)

Table 3-17: Global Market for Anaerobic Digesters and Anaerobic Digesters Plant Ancillaries: 2006-2010 Historic and 2011-2021

Projected ($ Millions)

Figure 3-13: Regional WtE Markets for Anaerobic Digesters: 2006 (Historic), 2011 (Projected), and 2021 (Projected) ($ Millions)

Table 3-18: Anaerobic Digester Market Data and Projections, Major Countries: 2006 (Historic), 2011 (Projected), and 2021 (Projected) ($ Millions)

Table 3-19: Annual Historic and Projected Global Increases in Anaerobic Digesters Waste Capacity (Daily Tons) and Power Generation Capacity (MW)

Summary

Figure 3-14: Global Market for WtE Technologies; Historic (2006-2010) and Projected (2011-2021) ($ Billions)

Figure 3-15: Percentage of Global Market Shares for WtE Technologies; Historic (2006-2010) and Projected (2011-2021)

CHAPTER 4: WASTE TO ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES – MARKET AND PRODUCT TRENDS

Scope

WtE Product Pricing

Global Economic Factors Influencing WtE Project Costs

Regional and Cost Considerations

Figure 4-1: Worker Labor Compensation Rates, 1998-2008 (US$)

Technology Specific Costs and Cost Factors

Incinerators

Figure 4-2: Incinerator Costs (USD)

Table 4-1: Incineration Cost Profiles

Gasification

Figure 4-3: Gasification Costs (USD)

Table 4-2: Gasification Cost Profiles

Plasma Gasification

Figure 4-4: Plasma Gasifier Costs (USD)

Table 4-3: Plasma Gasification, Typical Cost Profiles

Pyrolysis

Figure 4-5: Pyrolysis Costs (USD)

Table 4-4: Pyrolysis, Typical Cost Profiles

Anaerobic Digestion/Fermentation/MBT

Figure 4-6: United States Anaerobic Digester Facilities: Animal Husbandry Wastes

Figure 4-7: US On-Farm Anaerobic Digester Costs

Table 4-5: Anaerobic Digestion, Typical Cost Profiles, Animal Wastes and Wastewater Treatment

Figure 4-8: Anaerobic Digestion Costs, Animal Wastes and Wastewater Treatment (USD)

Table 4-6: Anaerobic Digestion, Typical Cost Profiles, MSW

Figure 4-9: Anaerobic Digestion Costs, MSW (USD)

Industry Trends

Importance of Feedstock Availability

New Product Developments and Product Trends

Public Relations, Environmental, and Permitting Concerns

Figure 4-10 Waste Management Hierarchy for WtE Projetcs

Waste to Energy Ownership

Public Ownership

Private Ownership

Project Development and Financing Trends

Table 4-7: Common WtE Project Finance Mechanisms

Venture Capital and Equities

Grant Funding, Government Loans, and Other Government Incentives

Public/Government Funding

Project Revenues and Cash on Hand

Private Debt Financing

Mixed Funding Sources

Summary

CHAPTER 5: WASTE TO ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES – SUPPLY CHAIN AND PROMOTION

Scope

WtE Facilities Supply Chain

Figure 5-1: WtE Technologies, Facility Supply Chain

Waste Feedstock Supply Chains

Figure 5-2: Municipal Solid Waste Supply Chain

Figure 5-3: Generalized Non-MSW Waste Feedstock Supply Chain

Waste to Energy Product Promotion

Promotion to the End User

Promotion to Government and the Public

Summary

CHAPTER 6: WASTE TO ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES – JOB CREATION ESTIMATES

Scope

Modes of Job Creation

Job Creation Projections and Methods

Incineration

Figure 6-1: Projected Construction and Operation Period Job Creation Rates for Incineration; 2011 to 2021 (Annual Jobs Created)

Figure 6-2: Total Cumulative Construction and Operation Period Job Creation Rates for Incineration; 2011 to 2021 (Cumulative Total Number of Jobs Created)

Gasification

Figure 6-3: Projected Construction and Operation Period Job Creation Rates for Gasification; 2011 to 2021 (Annual Jobs Created)

Figure 6-4: Total Cumulative Construction and Operation Period Job Creation Rates for Gasification; 2011 to 2021 (Cumulative Total Number of Jobs Created)

Plasma Gasification

Figure 6-5: Projected Construction and Operation Period Job Creation Rates for Plasma Gasification; 2011 to 2021 (Annual Jobs Created)

Figure 6-6: Total Cumulative Construction and Operation Period Job Creation Rates for Plasma Gasification; 2011 to 2021 (Cumulative Total Number of Jobs Created)

Pyrolysis

Figure 6-7: Projected Construction and Operation Period Job Creation Rates for Pyrolysis; 2011 to 2021 (Annual Jobs Created)

Figure 6-8: Total Cumulative Construction and Operation Period Job Creation Rates for Pyrolysis; 2011 to 2021 (Cumulative Total Number of Jobs Created)

Anaerobic Digestion

Figure 6-9: Projected Construction and Operation Period Job Creation Rates for Anaerobic Digestion; 2011 to 2021 (Annual Jobs Created)

Figure 6-10: Total Cumulative Construction and Operation Period Job Creation Rates for Anaerobic Digestion; 2011 to 2021 (Cumulative Total Number of Jobs Created)

Summary

Figure 6-11: Total Cumulative Construction and Operation Period Job Creation for all WtE Technologies; 2011 - 2021 (Cumulative Total Number of Jobs Created, Thousands)

CHAPTER 7: COMPETITIVE PROFILES

Scope

Methodology and Selection of Profiles

Alpha Bio Systems, Inc.

Overview

Performance

Product Portfolio

Company News and Developments

The Babcock & Wilcox Company

Overview

Performance

Figure 7-1: Babcock and Wilcox Revenues, 2007-2010e

Product Portfolio

Company News and Developments

BlueFire Renewables Inc

Overview

Performance

Figure 7-2: BlueFire Renewables, Inc., Revenues, 2007-2010e

Product Portfolio

Company News and Developments

Covanta Energy Corporation

Overview

Performance

Figure 7-3: Covanta Energy Corporation, Revenues, 2006-2010e

Product Portfolio

Company News and Developments

Ener-G PLC

Overview

Performance

Product Portfolio

Company News and Developments

Fisia Babcock Environment GmbH

Overview

Performance

Figure 7-4: Fisia Babcock Environment, GmbH, Revenues, 2006-2010e

Product Portfolio

Company News and Developments

Florida Syngas LLC

Overview

Performance

Product Portfolio

Company News and Developments

Frontline BioEnergy, LLC

Overview

Performance

Product Portfolio

Company News and Developments

Gershman, Brickner & Bratton, Inc. (GBB)

Overview

Performance

Product Portfolio

Company News and Developments

Martin GmbH

Overview

Performance

Product Portfolio

Company News and Developments

Pyrogenesis Canada, Inc

Overview

Performance

Product Portfolio

Company News and Developments

QinetiQ

Overview

Performance

Figure 7-5: QinetiQ, Revenues, 2006-2010e

Product Portfolio

Company News and Developments

Siemens AG

Overview

Performance

Figure 7-6: Siemens AG, Revenues, 2007-2010e

Product Portfolio

Company News and Developments

Takuma Co., Ltd.

Overview

Performance

Figure 7-7: Takuma Co., Ltd., Revenues, 2006-2010e

Product Portfolio

Company News and Developments

UTS-Residual Processing LLC

Overview

Performance

Product Portfolio

Company News and Developments

Veolia Environnement S.A.

Overview

Performance

Figure 7-8: Veolia Environnement S.A., Revenues, 2006-2010e

Product Portfolio

Company News and Developments

Wheelabrator Technologies Inc

Overview

Performance

Figure 7-9: Wheelabrator Technologies, Inc., Revenues, 2006-2010e

Product Portfolio

Company News and Developments

CHAPTER 8: END USERS

Scope

Waste to Energy End Users: Thermal Technologies

Table 8-1: Thermal Technology End Users

Incineration

Gasification and Plasma Gasification

Pyrolysis and Depolymerization

Waste to Energy End Users: Anaerobic Digesters

Table 8-2: Anaerobic Digester End Users

Dairies and Animal Husbandry

Food and Meat Processing Industries

Municipal Greenwaste and Municipal Solid Waste

Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants

Table 8-3 WWTP Anaerobic Digester Typical Production Rate and Cost Parameters

Summary

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