Nano-Enabled Batteries for Portable and Rechargeable Applications – Types, Applications, New Developments, Industry Structure and Global Markets

Date: February 23, 2009
Pages: 165
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Nano-Enabled Batteries for Portable and Rechargeable Applications – Types, Applications, New Developments, Industry Structure and Global Markets
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Nanostructured or nano-enabled batteries are a new generation of lithium-ion batteries and battery systems to serve applications and markets outside the historical domain of lithium-ion.

Nano-enabled batteries employ technology at the nanoscale, a scale of minuscule particles that measure less than 100 nanometers, or 100x10-9 meters. In comparison, traditional lithium-ion (Li-Ion) technology uses active materials, such as lithium cobalt-oxide or lithium iron phosphate, with particles that range in size between 5 and 20 micrometers. Nano-engineering improves many of the failings of present battery technology, such as re-charging time and battery “memory”. Researching battery micro- and nanostructure is a whole new approach that is only just beginning to be explored

Industrial production of nano batteries requires production of the electrode coatings in large batches so that large numbers of cells can be produced from the same material. Manufacturers using nano materials in their chemistry had to develop unique mixing and handling technologies.

This report is focused on high performance batteries that are based on nanoscale materials, which are being used in cordless electric tools, notebooks and adoption in plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), HEVs, which are the next great transportation advance that will move us into a cleaner, cheaper, and more oil-independent future. A nano battery that outlasts the car will greatly improve the economics of hybrids versus traditional cars.

This report analyzes the worldwide markets for nanostructure-enabled batteries already using nano lithium iron phosphates, nano titanium oxide, silicon/graphite composites, and other developments in nanometals, carbon nanotubes, nanocrystalline materials, nanowires and polymer nanocomposites specifically related to batteries.

The report provides separate comprehensive analyses for the U.S., Japan, western Europe, China, Korea, and the rest of the world. Forecasts are provided for each region for the period 2008 through 2013. Cost analysis of nanostructured batteries, analysis of global patents activity and market competition and dynamics in the new technology are also covered in the report. The report profiles 44 companies, including many key and niche players worldwide as technology providers, raw material suppliers, nano batteries assemblers and users.

STUDY GOAL AND OBJECTIVES

This study focuses on nano-enabled batteries, providing market data about the size and growth of application segments, new developments, a detailed patent analysis, company profiles and industry trends. The goal of this report is to provide a detailed and comprehensive multi-client study of the market in North America, Europe, Japan, China, India, Korea and the rest of the world (ROW) for nanostructured batteries, and potential business opportunities in the future.

The objectives include thorough coverage of the underlying economic issues driving the nano-enabled batteries, as well as assessments of new advanced nano-enabled batteries that are being developed. Another important objective is to provide realistic market data and forecasts for nano-enabled batteries. The study also provides extensive quantification of the many important facets of market developments in nano-enabled batteries all over the world. This, in turn, contributes to the determination of what kind of strategic responses companies may want to adopt in order to compete in this dynamic market.

The report identifies the trends and strategies driving nano-enabled battery market segments, and focuses on detailed market share data and quantification in transport, specialty vehicles, power tools and portable consumer electronics devices.

REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY

Current battery technologies are limited, making plug-in hybrid or all-electric cars prohibitively costly and insufficient to meet consumer demands. Long term, fundamental research in electrical energy storage will be needed to accelerate the pace of scientific discoveries and to see transformational advances that bridge the gaps in cost and performance, separating the current technologies and those required for future utility and transportation needs.

The nanoscale dimensions that let energy move rapidly also allow the battery to recharge faster when the energy flow is reversed, a feature that is important for hybrid cars that are designed to harvest energy from braking and use it to recharge the batteries.

With all these new developments, iRAP felt the need to conduct a major study covering technology, application, industry dynamics and markets for nano-enabled batteries.

CONTRIBUTIONS OF THE STUDY

The report provides the most thorough and up-to-date assessment that can be found anywhere on nano-enabled batteries. The study provides extensive quantification of the many important facets of market developments in the emerging markets of these batteries, as, for example, in high power density and high energy density electric energy sources. This, in turn, contributes to the determination of what kind of strategic responses suppliers may adopt in order to compete in this dynamic market. The report goes on to analyze the prospects of different technologies and applications.

SCOPE AND FORMAT

The market data contained in this report quantifies opportunities for nano-enabled batteries. In addition to product types, it also covers the many issues concerning the merits and future prospects of the nano-enabled battery business, including corporate strategies, information technologies, and the means for providing these highly advanced products and service offerings. It also covers in detail the economic and technological issues regarded by many as critical to the industry’s current state of change. The report provides a review of the nano-enabled battery industry and its structure, and the many companies involved in providing these products. The competitive position of the main players in the nano-enabled battery market and the strategic options they face are also discussed, as well as such competitive factors as marketing, distribution and operations. The report provides profiles of leading firms active in this space.

Besides producers and users of nano-enabled batteries, the present survey also indentifies suppliers of nano materials required for the manufacture of electrodes and electrolytes and separators. The report also presents the status of ongoing research at leading institutes around the world. The role of venture capitalists and government funding agencies in the development of nano-enabled battery technology also is highlighted.

TO WHOM THE STUDY CATERS

The study will benefit the existing users of batteries who are looking for the dense chemistry of nano-enabled batteries, which are rated as being able to accept a power pulse of 100 times rated capacity, compared to other "advanced" batteries which are rated at only 20 times capacity. It is specifically engineered as a power battery able to supply short bursts of electrical energy, as opposed to a battery designed for longer, slower power drains, such as is found in an electric car. This makes it ideal for use in hybrid-electric cars as well as other applications including lawn care and garden equipment.

Since this study provides a technical overview of the nano-enabled batteries, especially recent technology developments and existing barriers, audiences for this study include directors of technology, marketing executives, business unit managers, and other decision makers in markets for hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid vehicles, electric vehicles, light electric vehicles, utility vehicles, power tools and laptops, as well as those in companies peripheral to these businesses.

More specifically, the report will be of interest to:
  • firms in the battery and power spaces who want to understand the next wave of opportunities and how the new battery and fuel cell technology will impact them in the future;
  • manufacturers and developers of advanced materials and components, as well as sub-contract manufacturing companies who need to analyze the potential for selling their products and services into the nano lithium ion battery power segment;
  • automotive, power tool and electronic portable consumers of batteries who need information on the power capabilities and power management requirements of future systems;
  • investment bankers, venture capitalists and private equity investors who need a realistic appraisal of the revenue potential and timeframes associated with the advanced energy storage technologies based on nanostructured materials.

REPORT SUMMARY

Nanotechnology innovations are driving advances in battery technology where nanomaterials are finding use as new battery materials. Enormous leverage can result from advances in cathodes, anodes and electrolytes used in the batteries. The current focus of nano-enabled batteries is on lithium-ion batteries. Lithium-ion cells represent the basic building blocks of batteries proposed for the next generation of advanced hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), electrical vehicles and specialty vehicles.

The calendar life of high-power lithium-ion battery cells is expected to have the same basic dependence on temperature as high-energy cell designs, because several of the high-power cell technologies use the same basic chemistry as larger cells and thus are subject to the same kind of degradation processes.

The next generation of lithium-ion batteries has improved safety characteristics, in part through the use of alternative nano-sized materials, in particular, nano-phosphate materials. Traditional lithium-ion technology uses active materials with particles that range in size between 5 and 20 microns.

The greater density of particles provides more surface area on which the ions can travel and generate additional power. In essence, battery power is derived from the diffusion of lithium ions moving in and out of particles. When particles are smaller but more numerous, that equates to greater diffusion and much faster kinetics than would be generated with one large particle.

The use of phosphates, in lieu of oxides, for the nanomaterials is one reason for these increased power rates and temperature ranges. Both phosphates and oxides are naturally occurring substances that are used in battery cathodes. Traditionally, oxides such as iron and cobalt have been used for battery cathodes. But, in the 1990s, scientists began to experiment with nano-phosphates, which industry experts say are inherently safer than oxides because they are stable in overcharge or short-circuit conditions and withstand high temperatures without decomposing.

The iRAP study identified over a dozen manufacturers and developers of nano-enabled batteries. These companies are driving the technology to meet market needs. There are also over 20 suppliers of nanomaterials used in nano-enabled batteries.

Major findings of this report are:
  • The global nano-enabled battery industry is characterized by over a dozen companies involved in the industry as manufacturers and developers.
  • The 2008 global market was estimated at $169 million and expected to grow, at an impressive annual average growth rate of 46.3%, to reach $1.13 billion by 2013.
  • Among the three types of nano-enabled batteries, customized batteries for power tools had the highest market share of 59.2% in 2008, followed by large format modules with 37.8%, and a small 3% share for fast charging customized nano safe battery for laptops.
  • By 2013, large format modules for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), electric vehicles (EVs) and specialty vehicles will have 84.7% of the global market, with an AAGR of 71.8% from 2008 to 2013.

INTRODUCTION

Study Goal And Objectives
Reasons For Doing The Study
Contributions of The Study
Scope And Format
Methodology
Information Sources
Whom The Study Caters To
Author’s Credentials

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Executive Summary (Continued)
Summary Table Global Market Size/Percentage Share For Nano-Enabled Batteries By Type, 2008 And 2013
Summary Figure Global Market Size For Nano-Enabled Batteries By Type, 2008 And 2013 ($ Millions)

INDUSTRY OVERVIEW

Business Strategy
Competition
Joint Ventures And Development Efforts
Emergence of China in Nano-Eneabled Batteries
  Emergence of China in Nano-Eneabled Batteries (Continued)

TECHNICAL OVERVIEW

Types of batteries
  Primary Batteries
  Secondary Cells/Batteries
    Secondary Cells/Batteries (Continued)
    Key Terminologies Related to Batteries
Table 1 Electrochemical Characterstics of Rechargeable Batteries
Table 2 Definitions of Key Terminologies Used in Nano-Enabled Batteries
Table 2 Definitions of Key Terminologies Used in Nano-Enabled Batteries (Continued)
Lithium Versus Non-Lithium Technologies
  Lithium Versus Non-Lithium Technologies (Continued)
  Lithium Versus Non-Lithium Technologies (Continued)
Table 3 Comparison of Rechargeable Battery Power Source Options
Description of Electrode Material Processing Technologies
Table 4 Synthesis Processes Used to Manufacture Nanostructured Materials Used in Electrodes For Nano-Enabled Lithium Batteries
Table 4 Synthesis Processes Used to Manufacture Nanostructured Materials Used in Electrodes For Nano-Enabled Lithium Batteries (Continued)
Table 4 Synthesis Processes Used to Manufacture Nanostructured Materials Used in Electrodes For Nano-Enabled Lithium Batteries (Continued)
Rechargeable Lithium Batteries Technologies
Figure 1 Schematic of A Lithium-Ion Cell
Conventional Lithium-Ion Battery Usage in Transport
Materials For Li-Ion Batteries
  Cathode Materials
Table 5 Micron-Scale Cathode Electrode Materials
Table 6 Nanoscale Cathode Electrode Lithium Iron Phosphate Properties With Different Carbon % Doping
  Anodes
 &Nbsp;Separators
  Electrolytes
Table 7 Electrolytes Used in Nano-Enabled Batteries
  Organic Solvents
Table 8 Organic Solvents Used in Nano-Enabled Battery
  Cell Packaging
  Safety Circuits
  Module And Battery Pack Materials
Advantages of Rechargeable Lithium-Based Batteries
  Lithium-Ion Battery Safety
    Lithium-Ion Battery Safety (Continued)
  How Cell Types Differ
Figure 2 Schematic of A Cylindrical Lithium-Ion Cell
  From Cells to Modules to Battery Packs
Figure 3 Schemetic of A Cell.Module, Pack
Nanomaterials in Li-Ion Batteries
  Nanostructured Materials
  Present Status And Future Challenges
  The Role of Nanomaterials in Rechargeable Batteries
    The Role of Nanomaterials in Rechargeable Batteries (Continued)
Figure 4 Schemetic Diagram of A Lithium Ion Battery Showing Ion Movement
Table 9 Materials Used in Nanostructured Electrodes of Rechargeable Batteries And Their Electrochemical Properties
Table 9 Materials Used in Nanostructured Electrodes of Rechargeable Batteries And Their Electrochemical Properties (Continued)
Table 9 Materials Used in Nanostructured Electrodes of Rechargeable Batteries And Their Electrochemical Properties (Continued)
Table 9 Materials Used in Nanostructured Electrodes of Rechargeable Batteries And Their Electrochemical Properties (Continued)
Table 10 Summary of Other Potential Materials For Nanostructured Electrodes Used in Batteries
Table 10 Summary of Other Potential Materials For Nanostructured Electrodes Used in Batteries (Continued)
Table 10 Summary of Other Potential Materials For Nanostructured Electrodes Used in Batteries (Continued)
Electrode Material Structure
Table 11 Layered, Spinel And Olivine Structure of Positive Electrode Material For Nano-Enabled Lithium Batteries
Key Points
Nanomaterials Used For Negative Electron Anodes
The Electrode-Electrolyte Interface
Case Study: Constructing A Nano-Enabled Battery
Table 12 Nanosafetm Battery Performance Data
Case Study 1: A123 Systems Battery
Case Study 1: A123 Systems Battery (Continued)
Case Study 2: Altair Nanotechnologies Battery
Case Study 3: Mphase Technologies Multi-Batteries
Table 13 Nano-Enabled Chemistries And Manufacturers in 2008

APPLICATIONS

Power Tools
  Power Tools (Continued)
  Nano-Enabled Batteries Versus Normal Lithium Batteries in Power Tools
    Case Study 1: Milwaukee Electric Tool Corp. Cordless Power Tools
    Case Study 2: Dewalt-Black & Decker Cordless Power Tools
Batteries For Vehicles
  Batteries For Vehicles (Continued)
  Hybrid Electric Vehicles (Hevs)
  Electric Vehicles (Evs)
  Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles (Phevs)
  Light Electric Vehicles (Levs)
  Heavy-Duty Vehicles
  Comparison of Nano-Enabled Batteries Versus Normal Nimh Batteries in Hybrids/Evs
    Case Study 1: Toyota Prius Converted to Phev
    Case Study 2: Killacycle, Electric Motorcycle Running On Nano-Enabled Batteries
Nanostructured Batteries For Laptops
  Nanostructured Batteries For Laptops (Continued)
Table 14 Users of Nano-Enabled Batteries in 2008
Table 15 Typical Specifications of Commercially Available Nano Batteries in 2008
Table 16 Nano-Enabled Battery Advantage in The Toyota Prius Hybrid Car Converted to Phev

INDUSTRY STRUCTURE

Industry Structure (Continued)
Industry Structure (Continued)
Industry Structure (Continued)
Table 17 Top Manufacturers of Nano-Enabled Batteries For Cordless Tools, Transport And Utilities (Electric Fork Lift), 2008
Competition
  Competition (Continued)
  Competition (Continued)
  R&D in Nanostructured Materials Impacting The Nano-Enabled Battery Business
Table 18 Ongoing Research in Nanostructured Electrode Materials Impacting The Nano Battery Business Beyond 2008
Table 18 Ongoing Research in Nanostructured Electrode Materials Impacting The Nano Battery Business Beyond 2008 (Continued)
Table 18 Ongoing Research in Nanostructured Electrode Materials Impacting The Nano Battery Business Beyond 2008 (Continued) 0
Table 19 Company/Product Reference For Nano-Enabled Batteries
Partnerships And Consolidations
Table 20 Relationships of Technology Providers And Manufacturers in China During 2007-2008
Table 21 Relationships of Manufacturers With End Users (Oems) During 2007-2008
Table 22 Relationships For Development of Components of Nano-Enabled Lithium Batteries From 2006-July 2008
Research And Development Funding
Table 23 Funding to Develop Advanced Nano-Enabled Batteries, 2006 Through Aug 15, 2008
Table 23 Funding to Develop Advanced Nano-Enabled Batteries, 2006 Through Aug 15, 2008 (Continued)
Table 23 Funding to Develop Advanced Nano-Enabled Batteries, 2006 Through Aug 15, 2008 (Continued)
Overview of Material Suppliers
Table 24 Major Suppliers of Materials For Nano-Enabled Batteries
Table 24 Major Suppliers of Materials For Nano-Enabled Batteries (Continued)
Table 25 Nano-Enabled Battery Industry Participants
Table 25 Nano-Enabled Battery Industry Participants (Continued)
Table 25 Nano-Enabled Battery Industry Participants (Continued)

GLOBAL AND REGIONAL MARKETS

Global Market According to Types
Table 26 Global Market Size/Percentage Share For Nano-Enabled Batteries, By Type 2008 And 2013
Figure 5 Global Market For Nano Enabled Batteries, By Type 2008 And 2013 ($ Millions)
  Basis of Market Estimations
Nano-Enabled Versus Micronic Rechargeable Batteries
Table 27 Percentage of Nano- Versus Micronic-Structured Batteries By Market Domain in 2008
Table 28 Percentage of Nano-Enabled Versus Micronic Structured Batteries in 2013
  Nano-Enabled Batteries For Transport Energy Storage
Table 29 Global Market Size/Percentage Share For Nano-Enabled BATTERIES IN Transport And Utility Energy Storage, 2008 And 2013
  Nano-Enabled Batteries For Cordless Tools
Table 30 Global Market Size/Percentage Share For Nano Enabled Batteries in Cordless Tools, 2008 And 2013
Global Market According to Technologies
Table 31 Global Market Size/Percentage Share For Nano-Enabled Batteries By Technology, 2008 And 2013
Figure 6 Global Market Size For Nano-Enabled Batteries By Technology, 2008 And 2013 ($ Millions)
  Global Market According to Region
Global Market Size/Percentage Share For Nano-Enabled Batteries By Region, 2008 And 2013
Figure 7 Global Market Size For Nano-Enabled Batteries By Region, 2008 And 2013 ($ Millions)
Cost Structure of Nano-Enabled Batteries
  Cost Structure of Nano-Enabled Batteries (Continued)
  Cost Structure of Nano-Enabled Batteries (Continued)
  Cost Structure of Nano-Enabled Batteries (Continued)
Table 33 Cost Basis For Nano Lithium-Iron-Phosphate Batteries in Size 26650 in 2008
  Cost Structure of Nano-Enabled Batteries (Continued)
Future Directions For Nanostructured Batteries
  Future Directions For Nanostructured Batteries (Continued)

PATENTS AND PATENT ANALYSIS

List of Patents
  Method of Making Fine Lithium-Iron-Phosphate/Carbon-Based Powders With An Olivine-Type Structure
  Self-Organizing Battery Structure With Electrode Particles That Exert A Repelling Force On The Opposite Electrode
  Nanoparticle-Based Power Coatings And Corresponding Structures
  Lithium Transition-Metal Phosphate Powder For Rechargeable Batteries
  Preparation of Nanocrystalline Lithium-Titanate Spinels
  Lithium Secondary Cell With High Charge And Discharge Rate Capability
  Methods For Nanowire Growth
  Structures, Systems And Methods For Joining Articles And Materials And Uses Therefor
  Conductive Lithium Storage Electrode
  Systems And Methods For Harvesting And Integrating Nanowires
  Polymer Composition For Encapsulation of Electrode Particles
  Systems And Methods For Nanowire Growth And Harvesting
  Nanoscale Wire-Based Sublithographic Programmable Logic Arrays
  Post-Deposition Encapsulation of Nanostructures: Compositions, Devices And Systems Incorporating Same
  High-Aspect-Ratio Metal-Polymer Composite Structures For Nano Interconnects
  Lithium Secondary Cell With High Charge And Discharge Rate Capability
  Deterministic Addressing of Nanoscale Devices Assembled At Sublithographic Pitches
  Nanocomposites
  Electrowetting Battery Having A Nanostructured Electrode Surface
  Method For Manufacturing Single-Wall Carbon Nanotube Tips
  Nanostructure Lithium-Titanate Electrode For High Cycle Rate Rechargeable Electrochemical Cell
  Methods And Apparatus For Deposition of Thin Films
  Nanoscale Ion Storage Materials
  Methods of Positioning And/Or Orienting Nanostructures
  Methods of Making, Positioning And Orienting Nanostructures, Nanostructure Arrays And Nanostructure Devices
  Nanofiber Surface-Based Capacitors
  System And Process For Producing Nanowire Composites And Electronic Substrates Therefrom
  Coated Electrode Particles For Composite Electrodes And Electrochemical Cells
  Method of Producing Regular Arrays of Nanoscale Objects Using Nanostructured Block-Copolymeric Materials
  Array-Based Architecture For Molecular Electronics
  Electrolytic Perovskites
  Process For Making Nanosized Stabilized Zirconia
  Method For Producing Mixed Metal Oxides And Metal Oxide Compounds
  Sublithographic Nanoscale Memory Architecture
  Methods of Making, Positioning And Orienting Nanostructures, Nanostructure Arrays And Nanostructure Devices
  Tin Oxide Nanostructures
  Cathode Material For Lithium Battery
  Method of Manufacturing Nanosized Lithium-Cobalt Oxides By Flame-Spraying Pyrolysis
  Process For Making Lithium Titanate
  Process For Making Nanosized And Submicron-Sized Lithium-Transition Metal Oxides
  Stochastic Assembly of Sublithographic Nanoscale Interfaces
  Methods of Positioning And/Or Orienting Nanostructures
  Salts of Alkali Metals of N, N′ Disubstituted Amides of Alkane Sulfinic Acid And Nonaqueous Electrolytes On Their Basis
  Negative Electrodes For Lithium Cells And Batteries
  Secondary Power Source Having A Lithium Titanate Electrolyte
  Oxygen Ion Conducting Materials
  Nonaqueous Electrolytes Based On Organosilicon Ammonium Derivatives For High-Energy Power Sources
  Electrodes For Lithium Batteries
  Nonaqueous Secondary Battery With Lithium Titanium Cathode
  Long-Life Lithium Batteries With Stabilized Electrodes
  Intermetallic Negative Electrodes For Non-Aqueous Lithium Cells And Batteries
  Method For Producing Catalyst Structures
  Development of A Gel-Free Molecular Sieve Based On Self-Assembled Nano-Arrays
Patent Analysis
  Table 34 Number of U.S. Patents Granted to Companies Developing Materials And Process Technologies For Nano-Enabled Batteries From 2004 Through June 2008
  Figure 8 Top Companies in Terms OF U.S. Patents Granted For Nano-Enabled Batteries From 2004 Through June 2008
  International Overview OF U.S. Patent Activity in Nano-Enabled Batteries
  Table 34 Number of U.S. Patents Granted By Country/Region For Nanostructured Batteries, (January 2004 to June 2008)
  Other International Patents

COMPANY PROFILES

3M
A123 Systems
A123 Systems (Continued)
Actacell, INC.
Advanced Battery Technologies, INC
Toshiba Battery Co., Ltd.
Valence
Yazaki
Zhangjiagang Guotai-Huarong New Chemical Materials Co
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