Municipal Waste to Energy – a Technology, Industry and Market Analysis

Date: October 1, 2017
Pages: 301
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Publisher: Innovative Research & Products, Inc
Report type: Strategic Report
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ID: MA5240679E6EN
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Municipal Waste to Energy – a Technology, Industry and Market Analysis
Technology processes that convert municipal waste to energy represent some of the most promising methods to solve environmental problems and to address increasing energy demand caused a growing human population coupled with increasing economic activity.

Municipal waste-to-energy (MWTE) is a renewable energy source which obtained from resources that are essentially unlimited, since it consists of human-generated solid waste that is produced in every country around the globe. MWTE can be used to generate thermal energy and/or electricity. While some renewable energy may have higher costs than energy from conventional sources, under the right conditions this is not necessarily the case. An increasing number of cities, states, provinces and countries are implementing MWTE production in order to reduce their overall energy costs.

If applied using current strategies, MWTE will generate other benefits that include:
  • increasing the flexibility of power systems as electricity demand changes;
  • reducing pollution and emissions from conventional energy systems; and
  • reducing dependency and minimizing expenditure on imported fuels.
Moreover, some MWTE technologies are suited to small off-grid applications. Small energy systems can often contribute to the local economy by creating jobs in manufacturing, installation and servicing.

A number of MWTE technologies are available to communities in the United States and other global regions. These include combustion technologies, landfill gas technologies, plasma gasification technologies, pyrolysis gasification technologies and refuse-derived fuels. Detailed explanations of these key MWTE technologies are provided in the remainder of this report.

STUDY GOAL AND OBJECTIVES

This report focuses on the many new developments that have been taking place in MWTE technologies. Most of the market application sectors are growing at a good pace. In addition, there are new regions with dynamic economies that offer significant application opportunities for technologies used in the conversion of waste to energy.

Among the countries where we see good prospects for this industry are the growing economies of India, China and Brazil. The rapid economic expansions occurring in these evolving major economies, coupled with their large populations, has positioned MWTE among their top renewable energy options, and it is, as well, a key long-term future environmental solution. These developments have created the need for a proper analysis of market and business issues, trends in the MWTE industry, and international markets.

This report has been prepared to:
  • provide an overview of MWTE technologies, industry and markets, product capabilities and applications;
  • identify technical and business issues in the MWTE technologies industry;
  • illustrate the market idiosyncrasies among the MWTE technology applications and analyze global economic and technological trends impacting the demand for these technologies;
  • determine the current size and future growth of the world markets for MWTE technology applications;
  • identify and profile key manufacturers and developers of MWTE technology; and
  • identify global suppliers of MWTE technologies.
This study covers technical and industry overviews, MWTE technology processes, current and emerging MWTE technology methods, business and industry issues, current and emerging applications, and an extensive market analysis. The current size and future growth of transnational markets are estimated for 2016 and 2021.

FORMAT AND SCOPE

This report reviews the MWTE technology industry, including types of technologies, their applications, and current and anticipated demand for specific applications. For each market segment, the report provides an analysis of technology category, applications, international markets and competition.

The qualitative and quantitative judgments embodied in this report are a valuable contribution to the current knowledge of MWTE technologies, the prevailing economic and environmental conditions which require applications, the settings in which these technologies are used, and their markets. Moreover, this study has been conducted at a stage of market development when new applications hold the potential to revolutionize the industry. This is a consequence of the expanding utilization of waste to energy technologies – the need to continuously reduce gas emissions from landfills and increase energy production at a cost that consumers can afford, while still producing profitable returns to investors who must fund the high costs of electrical power plants, etc. This requires the application of new and innovative energy producing processes. The current study identifies all such applications.

METHODOLOGY AND INFORMATION SOURCES

The findings of this report are based on information derived from interviews with producers, distributors and major operators of waste to energy operations. Several industry experts were also contacted for this study.

Secondary data were obtained from government sources such as the U.S. Department of Energy and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, waste to energy equipment manufacturers, trade publications, technical journals, and government statistics from agencies such as the U.S. Department of Commerce, the U.S. Government Accountability Office and the European Commission.

CONTRIBUTIONS OF THE STUDY

This study provides the most complete accounting of the current market and future growth in municipal waste to energy country wise in Africa, Asia, Europe, The Middle East and The Americas. Further, the report provides global market according to technologies used for converting municipal waste to energy such as combustion, land fill gas technology, refuse derived fuels technology, plasma gasification and pyrolysis gasification. Markets are estimated for 2015, 2016 and 2021.

TO WHOM THE STUDY CATERS

This report is directed to companies that are interested in developments in this field, such as
  • establishments involved in incinerator development and manufacturing;
  • renewable energy technology suppliers and consultants, energy systems engineers, developers of energy infrastructure projects;
  • producers and suppliers of boiler plant equipment;
  • manufacturers and suppliers of systems and subsystems which incorporate waste recycling;
  • builders and integrators of wastewater treatment technologies;
  • investment institutions involved in the financing of energy resource and environmental solution projects;
  • renewable technology research companies and institutions; and
  • major energy utility companies interested in diversification.
REPORT SUMMARY

The municipal waste to energy (MWTE) technologies industry has sustained significant growth in the last decade and is likely to continue to expand in the future because of the increasing demands for energy and for environmental solutions. In addition to countries in Asia and in the Americas that are undergoing economic expansions, population growth is a major driver. Among the countries where we see increased human consumption, holding the potential for positively impacting the MWTE technologies industry, are China, India and Brazil.

Within the MWTE sector, there has been continuous innovation in the technologies for waste to energy conversion processes, which has resulted in systems having greater efficiencies. In turn, this has increased the scope of waste to energy technology applications.

Global market for Municipal Waste to Energy Technologies was estimated to have reached $30.2 billion in 2016 and will reach $41.5 billion by 2021 with a growth rate of 6.5% compound annual growth rate (CAGR) over the next five years.

In terms of region wise market share, the Asian region offers the greatest opportunities for growth, a trend that is expected to continue through 2021 followed by Europe and The Americas and The Middle East and Africa as distant 4th and 5th position. In terms of technologies used, the Combustion Technology dominates the market.
INTRODUCTION
  STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES
  FORMAT AND SCOPE
  METHODOLOGY AND INFORMATION SOURCES
  WHO SHOULD SUBSCRIBE?
  AUTHOR’S CREDENTIALS
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
  SUMMARY TABLE A: GLOBAL MARKET FOR MUNICIPAL WASTE TO ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES BY REGION THROUGH 2021
  SUMMARY FIGURE A: GLOBAL MARKET FOR MUNICIPAL WASTE TO ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES BY REGION THROUGH 2021
  SUMMARY TABLE B: GLOBAL MARKET FOR MUNICIPAL WASTE TO ENERGY BY TECHNOLOGY THROUGH 2021
  SUMMARY FIGURE B: GLOBAL MARKET FOR MUNICIPAL WASTE TO ENERGY BY TECHNOLOGY THROUGH 2021
MUNICIPAL WASTE TO ENERGY: A GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE
  WASTE AS FUEL SOURCE: ENERGY CONTENT
    TABLE 1: AVERAGE HEAT CONTENT OF SELECTED BIOMASS FUELS
  COST OF HARVESTING, COLLECTING, AND DELIVERING FEEDSTOCK
  SOURCES OF WASTE
    TABLE 2: U.S. MSW CONTENT BY MATERIAL, 2007
    FIGURE 1: TOTAL U.S. MSW GENERATION BY MATERIAL
  CONSTRUCTION AND DEMOLITION (C&D) WASTE
  MINING AND QUARRYING (M&Q) WASTE
  COMMERCIAL WASTE
  HOUSEHOLD WASTE
  INDUSTRIAL WASTE
AGRICULTURAL WASTE
SEWAGE WASTE
    TABLE 3: AVERAGE MILLION BTU PER TON FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE (MSW)
    TABLE 4: BIOGENIC AND NON-BIOGENIC CONTRIBUTIONS TO MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE (MSW)
  LANDFILLS
  WASTE TO ENERGY VALUE
    TABLE 5: GLOBAL VALUE OF WASTE TO ENERGY ASSETS, 2016-2021
  GLOBAL VALUE OF CAPITAL EXPENDITURES FOR WTE
    TABLE 6: ESTIMATED CAPITAL EXPENDITURES IN MUNICIPAL WASTE TO ENERGY BY REGION, 2014-2021
    TABLE 7: MSWTE TECHNOLOGIES
    TABLE 8: ESTIMATED MSWTE GIGAWATTS OF POWER BY REGION
  GLOBAL VALUE OF TOTAL TIPPING FEES TO SWTE
    TABLE 9: VALUE OF TOTAL TIPPING FEES, 2014-2021
  GLOBAL CARBON OFFSET VALUE
    TABLE 10: TOTAL ESTIMATED VALUES OF CARBON OFFSETS
  GLOBAL VALUE OF METAL RECOVERY:
    TABLE 11: ESTIMATED TOTAL VALUE OF METAL RECOVERY BY REGION
  VALUE OF OTHER WTE PRODUCTS
  MUNICIPAL WASTE TO ENERGY IN THE U.S.
    TABLE 12: SUMMARY VALUE OF MSWTE ASSETS U.S. 2014-2021
    TABLE 13: U.S. WASTE-TO-ENERGY CAPACITY ESTIMATED PROFILE
    TABLE 14: U.S. WASTE-TO-ENERGY SITES, 2014-2021
    TABLE 15: MUNICIPAL WASTE SOURCE, VALUE AND PERCENT OF MSW MARKET
  THE U.S. COMBUSTION MARKET
    TABLE 16: US STATES RANKED ACCORDING TO ENERGY PRODUCED FROM WASTE-TO-ENERGY PLANTS (1000S KWH)
  OTHER WASTE TO ENERGY IN THE U.S.
    TABLE 17: INDUSTRIAL WASTE TO ENERGY BY WASTE PRODUCT IN KILOWATT HOURS
    TABLE 18: INDUSTRIAL BIOMASS ELECTRICITY NET GENERATION BY U.S. REGIONS AND ENERGY SOURCES
    TABLE 19: INDUSTRIAL BIOMASS ELECTRICITY NET GENERATION BY U.S. REGIONS AND ENERGY SOURCES
  EUROPEAN MSWTE:
    TABLE 20: VALUE OF EUROPEAN MSWTE ASSETS, 2015-2021
    TABLE 21: EUROPEAN LEADERS IN LANDFILLLING
    TABLE 22: ELECTRICAL AND HEAT EFFICIENCY IN EUROPEAN WTE PLANTS
  ASIA MSWTE
    TABLE 23: ASIA’S ESTIMATED MSWTE ASSETT PROFILE, 2015-2021
    TABLE 24: TREATMENT METHODS IN EAST ASIA
  CHINA
    TABLE 25: REPRESENTATIVE WASTE-TO-ENERGY PLANTS IN CHINA
  INDIA
  JAPAN
    TABLE 26: JAPANESE WASTE-TO-ENERGY PLANTS
  REST OF THE WORLD
  AFRICA
  BRAZIL
WASTE-TO-ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES
    TABLE 27: MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE- TO-ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, FEEDSTOCKS AND PRODUCTS
  COMBUSTION
    FIGURE 2: WASTE-TO-ENERGY PLANT DIAGRAM
  CO-FIRING
    FIGURE 3: TYPICAL MSWTE PLANT CONFIGURATION
  COMBUSTION PLANT COSTS
    TABLE 28: LOW AND HIGH EFFICIENCY FOR MSW POWER PLANTS
    TABLE 29: CARBON DIOXIDE OFFSET RATES
  LANDFILL GAS
    TABLE 30: LANDFILL GAS FACILITY EQUIPMENT
  REFUSE-DERIVED FUEL (RDF):
    FIGURE 4 DIAGRAM OF RDF PRODUCTION
  WITH NON-DEDICATED PLANT
    FIGURE 5: BIOMASS TO FUELS CONVERSION PATHWAYS
  ANAEROBIC DIGESTION (AD)
  MECHANICAL BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT
  GASIFICATION
    TABLE 31: GASIFICATION FEEDSTOCKS BY MARKET PERCENT
    FIGURE 6: BASIC GASIFICATION PROCESS
    FIGURE 7: BIOMASS GASIFIER FLOW CHART
    TABLE 32: BIOMASS GASIFICATION VERSUS SOLAR AND WIND POWER
  PYROLYSIS
  DEPOLYMERIZATION
  TYPES OF GASIFIERS FOR MSW TREATMENT:
    TABLE 33: THERMAL CAPACITY BY GASIFIER DESIGN
  GASIFICATION WITH PURE OXYGEN OR HYDROGEN
  PLASMA GASIFICATION
    FIGURE 8: ILLUSTRATION OF PLASMA ARC
    FIGURE 9: PLASMA GASIFICATION SCHEMATIC FOR MUNICIPAL
  SOLID WASTE TO ENERGY
    FIGURE 10: PLASMA PROCESSING OF MSW AT COAL-FIRED PLANTS
  PLASMA ARC
  GAS PLASMA PROCESS
  ULTRA-HIGH TEMPERATURE (UHT) PLASMA GASIFICATION
    FIGURE 11: PLASMA GAS VITRIFICATION PROCESS
    TABLE 34: COMPARISON OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE-TO-ENERGY PROCESSES FOR ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION
  ADVANTAGES OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE GASIFICATION
  GREENHOUSE GAS REDUCTION
    TABLE 35: POUNDS OF CO2 PER MWH BY FUEL SOURCE
  CONVERSION TECHNOLOGIES
  DISADVANTAGES OF GASIFICATION
  LANDFILL GAS (LFG)
    TABLE 36: EMISSIONS REDUCTIONS FROM A 1 MW LANDFILL GAS-TO-ENERGY PROJECT
  TECHNOLOGY BENEFITS AND HURDLES OF WASTE-TO-ENERGY
  CONSIDERATIONS FOR WTE IMPLEMENTATION
  MATERIAL RECOVERY
  TECHNOLOGY CHALLENGES
  ENVIRONMENTAL BENEFITS
  WASTE AS A RESOURCE
  ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS
  AIR EMISSIONS
    TABLE 37: MSWTE POLLUTION CONTROLS
  WATER RESOURCES
  SOLID WASTE GENERATION
  LAND RESOURCE USE
  PERMITTING ISSUES FOR MASS BURN FACILITIES
GOVERNMENT REGULATIONS
  ECONOMIC MECHANISMS FOR SUPPORTING RENEWABLE ENERGY
  RENEWABLE ENERGY CREDITS (RECS)
  CARBON CREDITS
  THE CLEAN DEVELOPMENT MECHANISM FOR LANDFILL GAS RECOVERY
  LAWS AND REGULATIONS REGARDING RENEWABLE ENERGY
  ACTIONS IN THE EUROPEAN UNION AND ELSEWHERE
  UNITED STATES LAWS AND REGULATIONS
  FEDERAL LEGISLATION
  PERMITTING ISSUES
  PERMITTING ISSUES FOR LANDFILL GAS RECOVERY
  PERMITTING ISSUES FOR MASS BURN/COMBUSTION FACILITIES
  PERMITTING ISSUES FOR REFUSE-DERIVED FUEL COMBUSTION FACILITIES
  PERMITTING ISSUES FOR PYROLYSIS/THERMAL GASIFICATION
  ELECTRICAL SYSTEM INTERCONNECTION ISSUES
  STATE REGULATIONS
  STATE RENEWABLE PORTFOLIO STANDARDS (RPS)
  FLORIDA DEPT. OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION WHITE PAPER ON PLASMA ARC
  INTERNATIONAL REGULATIONS: CLEAN DEVELOPMENT MECHANISM AND WASTE-TO-ENERGY
  EUROPEAN REGULATIONS
WORLD MUNICIPAL WASTE-TO-ENERGY INDUSTRY STRUCTURE
    TABLE 38: LEADING MUNICIPAL WASTE-TO-ENERGY COMPANIES
    TABLE 39: DISTRIBUTION OF TOP MUNICIPAL WASTE-TO-ENERGY
  COMPANIES BY REGION
    TABLE 40: DISTRIBUTION OF MUNICIPAL WASTE-TO-ENERGY
  COMPANIES BY REGION
    TABLE 41: NORTH AMERICAN MUNICIPAL WASTE-TO-ENERGY COMPANIES
    TABLE 42: EUROPEAN MUNICIPAL WASTE-TO-ENERGY COMPANIES
    TABLE 43: ASIAN MUNICIPAL WASTE-TO-ENERGY COMPANIES
    TABLE 44: OCEANIA MUNICIPAL WASTE-TO-ENERGY COMPANIES
  MARKET DRIVERS
    TABLE 45: 2009 TOTAL U.S. MUNICIPAL WASTE BY MATERIAL
WORLD MUNICIPAL WASTE-TO-ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES MARKET
  EUROPEAN MARKET FOR MUNICIPAL WASTE-TO-ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES
    TABLE 46: WESTERN EUROPEAN MARKET FOR MUNICIPAL WASTE-TO-ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES BY COUNTRY THROUGH 2021
    TABLE 47: EASTERN EUROPEAN MARKET FOR MUNICIPAL WASTE TO ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES BY COUNTRY THROUGH 2021
  ASIA AND OCEANIA MARKETS FOR MUNICIPAL WASTE-TO-ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES
    TABLE 48: ASIAN MARKET FOR MUNICIPAL WASTE-TO-ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES BY COUNTRY THROUGH 2021
    TABLE 49: OCEANIAN MARKET FOR MUNICIPAL WASTE-TO-ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES BY COUNTRY THROUGH 2021
    TABLE 50: SOUTHEAST ASIAN MARKET FOR MUNICIPAL WASTE-TO-ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES BY COUNTRY THROUGH 2021
  NORTH AMERICAN MARKET FOR MUNICIPAL WASTE-TO-ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES
    TABLE 51: NORTH AMERICAN MARKET FOR MUNICIPAL WASTE TO ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES BY COUNTRY THROUGH 2021
  CENTRAL AND SOUTH AMERICAN MARKET FOR MUNICIPAL WASTE-TO-ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES
    TABLE 52: CENTRAL AND SOUTH AMERICAN MARKET FOR MUNICIPAL WASTE-TO-ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES BY COUNTRY THROUGH 2021
  AFRICAN MARKET FOR MUNICIPAL WASTE-TO-ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES
    TABLE 55: NORTH AFRICAN MARKET FOR MUNICIPAL WASTE-TO-ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES BY COUNTRY THROUGH 2021
    TABLE 54: SUB-SAHARAN AFRICAN MARKET FOR MUNICIPAL WASTE-TO-ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES BY COUNTRY THROUGH 2021
  MIDDLE EASTERN MARKET FOR MUNICIPAL WASTE-TO-ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES
    TABLE 55: MIDDLE EASTERN MARKET FOR MUNICIPAL WASTE-TO-ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES BY COUNTRY THROUGH 2021
MARKET FOR MUNICIPAL WASTE-TO-ENERGY COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGY
    TABLE 56: GLOBAL MARKET FOR MUNICIPAL WASTE-TO-ENERGY
  COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGY BY REGION THROUGH 2021
  EUROPEAN MARKET FOR MWTE COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGY
    TABLE 57: WESTERN EUROPEAN MARKET FOR MUNICIPAL WASTE-TO-ENERGY COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGY BY COUNTRY
    TABLE 58: EASTERN EUROPEAN MARKET FOR MUNICIPAL WASTE-TO-ENERGY COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGY BY COUNTRY
  ASIAN MARKET FOR MWTE COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGY
    TABLE 59: ASIAN MARKET FOR MWTE COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGY BY COUNTRY THROUGH 2021
    TABLE 60: OCEANIAN MARKET FOR MWTE COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGY BY COUNTRY THROUGH 2021
    TABLE 61: SOUTHEAST ASIAN MARKET FOR MWTE COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGY BY COUNTRY THROUGH 2021
  NORTH AMERICAN MARKET FOR MWTE COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGY
    TABLE 62: NORTH AMERICAN MARKET FOR MWTE COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGY BY COUNTRY THROUGH 2021
  CENTRAL AND SOUTH AMERICAN MARKET FOR MWTE COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGY
    TABLE 63: CENTRAL AND SOUTH AMERICAN MARKET FOR MWTE COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGY BY COUNTRY
  AFRICAN DEMAND FOR MWTE COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGY
    TABLE 64: NORTH AFRICAN DEMAND FOR MWTE COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGY BY COUNTRY THROUGH 2021
    TABLE 65: SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA DEMAND FOR MWTE COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGY BY COUNTRY THROUGH 2021
  MIDDLE EAST DEMAND FOR COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGY APPLICATIONS
    TABLE 66: MIDDLE EAST DEMAND FOR MWTE COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGY BY COUNTRY THROUGH 2021
    TABLE 67: GLOBAL MARKET FOR MWTE LANDFILL GAS TECHNOLOGY BY REGION THROUGH 2021
  EUROPEAN MARKET FOR MWTE LANDFILL GAS TECHNOLOGY
    TABLE 68: WESTERN EUROPEAN MARKET FOR MWTE LANDFILL GAS TECHNOLOGY BY COUNTRY THROUGH 2021
    TABLE 69: EASTERN EUROPEAN MARKET FOR MWTE LANDFILL GAS TECHNOLOGY BY COUNTRY THROUGH 2021
  ASIAN MARKET FOR MWTE LANDFILL GAS TECHNOLOGY
    TABLE 70 ASIAN DEMAND FOR MWTE LANDFILL GAS TECHNOLOGY BY COUNTRY THROUGH 2021
    TABLE 71: OCEANIAN DEMAND FOR MWTE LANDFILL GAS TECHNOLOGY BY COUNTRY THROUGH 2021
    TABLE 72 SOUTHEAST ASIAN MARKET FOR MWTE LANDFILL GAS TECHNOLOGY BY COUNTRY THROUGH 2021
  NORTH AMERICAN MARKET FOR MWTE LANDFILL GAS TECHNOLOGY
    TABLE 73: NORTH AMERICAN MARKET FOR MWTE LANDFILL GAS TECHNOLOGY BY COUNTRY THROUGH 2021
  CENTRAL AND SOUTH AMERICAN MARKET FOR MWTE LANDFILL GAS TECHNOLOGY
    TABLE 74: CENTRAL AND SOUTH AMERICAN MARKET FOR MWTE LANDFILL GAS TECHNOLOGY BY COUNTRY THROUGH 2021
  AFRICAN DEMAND FOR MWTE LANDFILL GAS TECHNOLOGY
    TABLE 75: NORTH AFRICAN DEMAND FOR MWTE LANDFILL GAS TECHNOLOGY APPLICATIONS BY COUNTRY THROUGH 2021
    TABLE 76: SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA DEMAND FOR MWTE LANDFILL GAS TECHNOLOGY BY COUNTRY THROUGH 2021
  MIDDLE EAST DEMAND FOR MWTE LANDFILL GAS TECHNOLOGY
    TABLE 77: MIDDLE EASTERN DEMAND FOR MWTE LANDFILL GAS TECHNOLOGY BY COUNTRY THROUGH 2021
WORLD MARKET FOR REFUSE-DERIVED FUEL TECHNOLOGY
    TABLE 78: GLOBAL MARKET FOR REFUSE-DERIVED FUELS TECHNOLOGY BY REGION THROUGH 2021
  EUROPEAN MARKET FOR REFUSE-DERIVED FUELS TECHNOLOGY
    TABLE 79: WESTERN EUROPEAN MARKET FOR REFUSE DERIVED FUELS TECHNOLOGY BY COUNTRY, THROUGH 2021
    TABLE 80: EASTERN EUROPEAN MARKET FOR REFUSE-DERIVED FUELS TECHNOLOGY BY COUNTRY THROUGH 2021
  ASIAN MARKET FOR REFUSE DERIVED FUELS TECHNOLOGY
    TABLE 81: ASIAN MARKET FOR REFUSE DERIVED FUELS TECHNOLOGY BY COUNTRY THROUGH 2021
    TABLE 82: OCEANIAN MARKET FOR REFUSE-DERIVED FUELS TECHNOLOGY BY COUNTRY THROUGH 2021
    TABLE 83: SOUTHEAST ASIAN MARKET FOR REFUSE-DERIVED FUELS TECHNOLOGY BY COUNTRY THROUGH 2021
  NORTH AMERICAN MARKET FOR REFUSE-DERIVED FUELS TECHNOLOGY
    TABLE 84: NORTH AMERICAN MARKET FOR REFUSE-DERIVED FUELS TECHNOLOGY BY COUNTRY THROUGH 2021
  CENTRAL AND SOUTH AMERICAN MARKET FOR REFUSE-DERIVED FUELS TECHNOLOGY
    TABLE 85: CENTRAL AND SOUTH AMERICAN MARKET FOR REFUSE DERIVED FUELS TECHNOLOGY BY COUNTRY THROUGH 2021
  AFRICAN DEMAND FOR REFUSE-DERIVED FUELS TECHNOLOGY
    TABLE 86: NORTH AFRICAN DEMAND FOR REFUSE-DERIVED FUELS TECHNOLOGY BY COUNTRY THROUGH 2021
    TABLE 87: SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA DEMAND FOR REFUSE-DERIVED FUELS TECHNOLOGY BY COUNTRY THROUGH 2021
  MIDDLE EAST DEMAND FOR REFUSE-DERIVED FUELS TECHNOLOGY
    TABLE 88: MIDDLE EAST DEMAND FOR REFUSE-DERIVED FUELS TECHNOLOGY BY COUNTRY THROUGH 2021
WORLD MARKET FOR PLASMA GASIFICATION TECHNOLOGY
    TABLE 89: GLOBAL MARKET FOR MWTE PLASMA GASIFICATION TECHNOLOGY BY REGION THROUGH 2021
  EUROPEAN MARKET FOR MWTE PLASMA GASIFICATION TECHNOLOGY
    TABLE 90: WESTERN EUROPEAN MARKET FOR MWTE PLASMA GASIFICATION TECHNOLOGY BY COUNTRY THROUGH 2021
    TABLE 91: EASTERN EUROPEAN MARKET FOR MWTE PLASMA GASIFICATION TECHNOLOGY BY COUNTRY THROUGH 2021
  ASIAN MARKET FOR MWTE PLASMA GASIFICATION TECHNOLOGY
    TABLE 92: ASIAN MARKET FOR MWTE PLASMA GASIFICATION TECHNOLOGY BY COUNTRY THROUGH 2021
    TABLE 93: OCEANIAN MARKET FOR MWTE PLASMA GASIFICATION TECHNOLOGY BY COUNTRY THROUGH 2021
    TABLE 94: SOUTHEAST ASIAN MARKET FOR MWTE PLASMA
  GASIFICATION TECHNOLOGY BY COUNTRY THROUGH 2021
  NORTH AMERICAN MARKET FOR MWTE PLASMA GASIFICATION TECHNOLOGY
    TABLE 95: NORTH AMERICAN MARKET FOR MWTE PLASMA GASIFICATION TECHNOLOGY BY COUNTRY, THROUGH 2021
  CENTRAL AND SOUTH AMERICAN MARKET FOR MWTE PLASMA GASIFICATION TECHNOLOGY
    TABLE 96: CENTRAL AND SOUTH AMERICAN MARKET FOR MWTE PLASMA GASIFICATION TECHNOLOGY BY COUNTRY
  AFRICAN MARKET FOR MWTE PLASMA GASIFICATION TECHNOLOGY
    TABLE 97: NORTH AFRICAN MARKET FOR MWTE PLASMA GASIFICATION TECHNOLOGY BY COUNTRY THROUGH 2021
    TABLE 98: SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA MARKET FOR MWTE PLASMA GASIFICATION TECHNOLOGY BY COUNTRY THROUGH 2021
  MIDDLE EASTERN MARKET FOR MWTE PLASMA GASIFICATION TECHNOLOGY
    TABLE 99: MIDDLE EASTERN MARKET FOR MWTE FROM PLASMA GASIFICATION TECHNOLOGY BY COUNTRY, THROUGH 2021
WORLD MARKET FOR PYROLYSIS GASIFICATION TECHNOLOGY APPLICATIONS IN MUNICIPAL WASTE TO ENERGY
    TABLE 100: GLOBAL MARKET FOR MWTE PYROLYSIS GASIFICATION TECHNOLOGY BY REGION THROUGH 2021
  EUROPEAN MARKET FOR MWTE PYROLYSIS GASIFICATION TECHNOLOGY
    TABLE 101: WESTERN EUROPEAN MARKET FOR MWTE PYROLYSIS
  GASIFICATION TECHNOLOGY BY COUNTRY THROUGH 2021
    TABLE 102: EASTERN EUROPEAN MARKET FOR MWTE PYROLYSIS GASIFICATION TECHNOLOGY BY COUNTRY THROUGH 2021
  ASIAN AND OCEANIAN MARKETS FOR MWTE PYROLYSIS GASIFICATION TECHNOLOGY
    TABLE 103: ASIAN MARKET FOR MWTE PYROLYSIS GASIFICATION TECHNOLOGY BY COUNTRY THROUGH 2021
    TABLE 104: OCEANIAN MARKET FOR MWTE PYROLYSIS GASIFICATION TECHNOLOGY BY COUNTRY THROUGH 2021
    TABLE 105: SOUTHEAST ASIAN MARKET FOR MWTE PYROLYSIS GASIFICATION TECHNOLOGY BY COUNTRY THROUGH 2021
  NORTH AMERICAN MARKET FOR MWTE PYROLYSIS GASIFICATION TECHNOLOGY
    TABLE 106: NORTH AMERICAN MARKET FOR MWTE PYROLYSIS GASIFICATION TECHNOLOGY BY COUNTRY THROUGH 2021
  CENTRAL AND SOUTH AMERICAN MARKET FOR MWTE PYROLYSIS GASIFICATION TECHNOLOGY
    TABLE 107: CENTRAL AND SOUTH AMERICAN MARKET FOR MWTE PYROLYSIS GASIFICATION TECHNOLOGY BY COUNTRY
  AFRICAN DEMAND FOR MWTE PYROLYSIS GASIFICATION TECHNOLOGY
    TABLE 108: NORTH AFRICA DEMAND FOR MWTE PYROLYSIS
  GASIFICATION TECHNOLOGY BY COUNTRY THROUGH 2021
    TABLE 109: SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA DEMAND FOR MWTE PYROLYSIS GASIFICATION TECHNOLOGY BY COUNTRY
  MIDDLE EASTERN DEMAND FOR MWTE PYROLYSIS GASIFICATION TECHNOLOGY
    TABLE 110: MIDDLE EAST DEMAND FOR MWTE PYROLYSIS GASIFICATION TECHNOLOGY BY COUNTRY THROUGH 2021
NEW DEVELOPMENTS
  WASTE TO ENERGY
  DRY ANAEROBIC CO-DIGESTION OF ORGANIC FRACTION OF MUNICIPAL WASTE WITH PAPERBOARD MILL SLUDGE AND GELATIN SOLID WASTE FOR ENHANCEMENT OF HYDROGEN PRODUCTION
  LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF THERMAL WASTE-TO-ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES: REVIEW AND RECOMMENDATIONS
  ASSESSMENT OF WASTE DERIVED GASES AS A RENEWABLE ENERGY
  BIOELECTROCHEMICAL TREATMENT OF MUNICIPAL WASTE LIQUOR IN MICROBIAL FUEL CELLS FOR ENERGY VALORIZATION
  PROCESSING AND PROPERTIES OF A SOLID ENERGY FUEL FROM MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE (MSW) AND RECYCLED PLASTICS
  EXTRACTION OF MEDIUM CHAIN FATTY ACIDS FROM ORGANIC MUNICIPAL WASTE AND SUBSEQUENT PRODUCTION OF BIO-BASED FUELS
  HYDROGEN-RICH GAS PRODUCTION BY THE GASIFICATION OF WET MSW (MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE) COUPLED WITH CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE
  EXTRACTION OF SOLUBLE SUBSTANCES FROM ORGANIC SOLID MUNICIPAL WASTE TO INCREASE METHANE PRODUCTION
  POTENTIAL OF BIOHYDROGEN PRODUCTION FROM ORGANIC FRACTION OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE (OFMSW) USING PILOT-SCALE DRY ANAEROBIC REACTOR
  A REVIEW OF TECHNOLOGIES AND PERFORMANCES OF THERMAL TREATMENT SYSTEMS FOR ENERGY RECOVERY FROM WASTE
  WASTE TO ENERGY: EXPLOITATION OF BIOGAS FROM ORGANIC WASTE IN A 500 WEL SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL (SOFC) STACK
  TECHNOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES IN CONVERSION OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE TO ENERGY
  ENERGY PRODUCTION THROUGH ORGANIC FRACTION OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE—A MULTIPLE REGRESSION MODELING APPROACH
  CO-DIGESTION OF MUNICIPAL SLUDGE AND EXTERNAL ORGANIC WASTES FOR ENHANCED BIOGAS PRODUCTION UNDER REALISTIC PLANT CONSTRAINTS
  PLASMA GASIFICATION OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE
  ADVANCED SOLUTIONS IN COMBUSTION-BASED WTE TECHNOLOGIES
  REPOWERING EXI WITH GAS TURBINES
PATENTS AND PATENT ANALYSIS
    TABLE 111: SAMPLE OF CURRENT U.S. PATENT GENERATION TRENDS IN WASTE-TO-ENERGY TECHNOLOGY BY YEAR
    TABLE 112: U.S. PATENTS IN WASTE-TO-ENERGY TECHNOLOGY
    TABLE 113: U.S. PATENTS BY TECHNOLOGY, 2013–2015
  SAMPLE OF U.S. PATENT ABSTRACTS
  BATCH WASTE GASIFICATION PROCESS
  PRODUCING LIQUID FUEL FROM ORGANIC MATERIAL SUCH AS BIOMASS AND WASTE RESIDUES
  PROCESSING BIOMASS AND PETROLEUM CONTAINING MATERIALS
  PLASMA-ASSISTED WASTE GASIFICATION SYSTEM
  PLASMA ASSISTED GASIFICATION SYSTEM WITH AN INDIRECT VACUUM SYSTEM
  APPARATUS AND METHOD FOR CONVERSION OF SOLID WASTE INTO SYNTHETIC OIL, GAS, AND FERTILIZER
  METHODS OF PRODUCING LIQUID HYDROCARBON FUELS FROM SOLID PLASTIC WASTES
  PROCESSING BIOMASS
  PROCESS AND SYSTEM FOR PRODUCING ENGINEERED FUEL
  PHOTONIC RADIOLYSIS OF WASTE MATERIALS
  MECHANIZED SEPARATION AND RECOVERY SYSTEM FOR SOLID WASTE
  PROCESS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF BIO-OIL FROM SOLID URBAN WASTE
  METHOD FOR CONVERTING BIOMASS TO METHANE
  U.S. REGISTERED PATENTS
    TABLE 114: SAMPLE OF LATEST U.S. WASTE TO ENERGY TECHNOLOGY PATENTS, 2013-2015
COMPANY PROFILES
AALBORG ENERGIE TECHNIK A/S
ADI SYSTEMS INC.
AEROTHERMAL GROUP
WESTINGHOUSE ELECTRIC CORPORATION
WMT-LBS GMBH
ZERO WASTE ENERGY, LLC (ZWE)
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