High Temperature Energy Storage: NaS, NaMx and Molten Salt

Date: July 22, 2011
Pages: 179
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Publisher: SBI
Report type: Strategic Report
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High Temperature Energy Storage: NaS, NaMx and Molten Salt
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The World Market for High Temperature Energy Storage

The $2.5 billion global high temperature energy storage (HTS) market of 2020 is going to be dominated by the sale and construction of molten salt storage systems for concentrated solar power (CSP) plants. The HTS market is composed of three categories: sodium-sulfur (NaS) batteries, sodium-metal halide (NaMx) batteries, and molten salt thermal energy storage (TES) systems. While NaS has been the strongest category ever since the first commercial systems were sold in 2003, it is molten salt TES systems that became the largest HTS category in 2010.

After four years of strong growth, the NaS battery market showed an unprecedented negative value for 2010. Despite this bizarre showing, the NaS HTS category has the potential for huge growth in the short and medium term because companies such as RUBENIUS in Mexico and the Abu Dhabi Water and Electric Authority in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) are building hundreds of megawatts of energy storage systems designed around NaS batteries. However, lack of investment by governments and institutions into fundamental NaS battery research means the battery chemistry will be overtaken by lithium-ion in its primary sales channel of utility scale energy storage, resulting in a market decline after 2017.

Although it has been NaMx’s traditional market, sales of the battery for small electric vehicles (EVs) will virtually disappear by 2015. However, NaMx will continue to be a major battery type for electric and hybrid electric buses and small trucks. More noteworthy is the fact that the battery chemistry’s recent push into the stationary storage market, particularly for remote telecommunications equipment, is going to show exceptionally strong growth in the medium and long term. From less than 10% of the category’s sales in 2010, the stationary segment will be responsible for over half of the NaMx market by 2019. However, for NaMx batteries to effectively compete in the long term against lead-acid and lithium-ion batteries, more research into NaMx cell geometry and electrode chemistry that can operate at lower temperatures is going to be crucial to expanding overall sales of NaMx batteries by 2020.

Sales growth of molten salt TES systems (or really any thermal energy storage technology) is completely dependant on the growth of the global CSP market. Fortunately for this category, the legislation and regulation landscape for both renewable energy sources and grid energy storage is very favorable. By 2013 the U.S. will supplant Spain as the largest market for thermal energy storage and by 2015 more molten salt TES, by MWh, will be installed in the U.S. than in Spain. Both countries will continue to be strong growth regions through to 2020 due to continued CSP plant construction. However, other countries such as the UAE and Saudi Arabia will also begin to contribute significantly to the molten salt TES market by 2020.

The World Market for High Temperature Energy Storage by SBI Energy provides key insight into current and future markets for high temperature batteries and thermal storage worldwide, focusing on key countries for each market segment. The analysis includes definitions, current product offerings and market detail on the following segments:
  • Sodium-sulfur (NaS) batteries - Typically used for grid load leveling applications.
  • Sodium-metal halide (NaMx) batteries - Used for electric vehicles and stationary storage applications. Often referred to as ZEBRA batteries.
  • Molten salt thermal energy storage (TES) - Used for CSP installations.
CHAPTER 1 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Scope & Methodology of this Report
  HTS Category Descriptions
  Table 1-1 Characteristics of some Common Energy Storage Systems
  Figure 1-1 The Global High Temperature Energy Storage Market, 2006-2010 (in million $)
The High Temperature Energy Storage Market
  NaS is the top Battery Chemistry for Grid Energy Storage
  Figure 1-2 NaS Battery Installations by Year, 2003-2010 (in MW)
  Sodium-Metal Halide Market
  Table 1-2 Largest Customers of ZEBRA Batteries, 2001-2010
  The Molten-Salt TES Market
  Figure 1-3 CSP Thermal Energy Storage Installations by Type, 2006-2010 (in MWh)
Sodium-Sulfur (NaS) Batteries
  Figure 1-4 Key Market Drivers and Barriers to NaS Battery Adoption, 2011
  Global Production
  Smart Grid Energy Storage Applications for NaS Batteries
  Figure 1-5 Global NaS Installations by application, 1995-2009 (in MW)
  The Cost Effectiveness of Grid Energy Storage for the Smart Grid
  Table 1-3 Electricity Storage Costs by Megawatt-Scale Application, 2010
  Power Conversion System Manufacturers
  Laws and Regulations
Sodium-Metal Halide (NaMx) Batteries
  Figure 1-6 Key Market Drivers & Barriers Affecting the NaMx Battery Market
  Global NaMx Production
  Figure 1-4 World NaMx Production Capacity, 2006, 2011, 2016, 2020 (in MWh)
  Figure 1-7 Cost Breakdown of a NaMx Battery (in percent)
  Future Market Expansion
  Funding & Research
Molten Salt Thermal Energy Storage
  Figure 1-8 Key Market Drivers & Barriers Affecting the Molten Salt TES Market
  The Cost of Production
  Figure 1-9 PPI for Mining of Potassium salts & Boron Compounds, Oct. 2007- Nov. 2010 (indexed to June 2007)
Potential Market Areas
  Laws and Regulations
  Funding
  Table 1-5 CSP R&D Funding by Country (not including the U.S.), 2005-2009 (in million $)
  Research Efforts
  Table 1-6 New Jobs Created from the High Temperature Energy Storage Market, 2015, 2020
Job Creation
Key Competitors
  Figure 1-10 Global TES Market by Competitor Based on Installed and Current Projects, June 2011 (in MWh installed)
Forecast
  Figure 1-11 The Global High Temperature Energy Storage Market, 2011-2020 (in million $)
  NaS Battery Market Forecast
  Table 1-7 Total NaS Battery Installations by Country, 2011-2020 (in MW)
NaMx Forecast
  Figure 1-12 Global NaMx Battery Market Forecast, 2011-2020 (in million $)
  Molten Salt TES Forecast
  Figure 1-13 Global Molten Salt Thermal Energy Storage Market Forecast, 2011-2020 (in million $)
  Table 1-8 Cumulative Molten Salt TES Installations by Country, 2010, 2015, 2020 (in GWh)

CHAPTER 2 INTRODUCTION

Scope of this Report
Methodology
Understanding the Capacity of Energy Storage
Sodium-Sulfur Batteries
  Figure 2-1 Typical NaS Battery Cell
  Table 2-1 Typical NaS Battery Characteristics
  Market History
  Key Design Issues
  Figure 2-2 Effect of NaS Electrolyte Thickness on Operating Temperature
Sodium-Metal Halide Batteries
  Figure 4-3 Typical NaMx Cell and Battery
  Table 2-2 Typical NaMx Battery Characteristics
  Market History
  Key Design Issues
Molten-Salt Thermal Energy Storage Systems
  Figure: 2-4 Typical Two-Tank Indirect Molten Salt TES System
  Table 2-3 Characteristics of Molten Salt TES Systems
  Market History
  Key Design Issues
  Other High Temperature Thermal Energy Storage Technologies
  Figure 2-5 Types of Thermal Energy Storage
  Table 2-4 Some Thermal Energy Storage Options
Other High Temperature Energy Storage Systems
Competing Storage Technologies
  Comparing Vehicle & Stationary Energy Storage Technologies
  Table 2-5 Storage Technology Characteristics for Typical Installations
  Comparing Large Scale Energy Storage Technologies
  Figure 2-6 System Ratings for Different Energy Storage Technologies
  Pumped Hydro
  Compressed Air
  Flywheels
  Lithium-Ion Batteries
  Flow Batteries

CHAPTER 3 SODIUM-SULFUR BATTERIES

World Energy Storage Capacity for Electrical Energy
  Figure 3-1 Total World Electricity Grid Energy Storage Capacity by Storage Type, 2009 (in MW)
NaS is the top Battery Chemistry for Grid Energy Storage
  Figure 3-2 The World NaS Battery Market, 2006-2010 (in million $)
  Table 3-1 Global Energy Storage Market for Utility Applications by Technology, 2006-2010 (in million $)
  Figure 3-3 NaS Battery Installations by Year, 2003-2010 (in MW)
  NaS Battery Installations
  Table 3-2 Recent Important NaS Battery Installations, 2008-2010
  Market by Region: Japan Dominates
  Figure 3-4 NaS Installations by Country, 1995-2010 (in MW)
  Market by Application: Load Leveling Leads
  Figure 3-5 Global NaS Installations by application, 1995-2009 (in MW)
Market Drivers
  Figure 3-6 Key Market Drivers and Barriers to NaS Battery Adoption, 2011
  Key Market Barriers for NaS Batteries
  Key Market Drivers for NaS Batteries
Global Availability of Production
  Figure 3-7 Global NaS production capacity by year, 2003-2020 (in MW)
The Cost of Production
Smart Grid Energy Storage Market Applications for NaS Batteries
  Table 3-3 Grid Transmission & Distribution Applications for Energy Storage
  Load Shifting
  Table 3-4 Energy Storage Requirements for Load Shifting Applications
  Power Quality
  Table 3-5 Energy Storage Requirements for Grid Power Quality Applications
  Renewable Energy Integration
  Emergency Power
  The Cost Effectiveness of Grid Energy Storage for the Smart Grid
  Table 3-6 Electricity Storage Costs by Megawatt-Scale Application, 2010
Power Conversion System Manufacturers
  Table 3-7 Global Energy Storage Market for Utility Applications by Technology, 2006-2010 (in million $)
Laws and Regulations
  California’s Storage Bill AB 2514
Job Creation
Funding
Research Efforts
Environmental Impact
  Figure 3-8 Electrical Grid CO2 Reduction by NaS Usage by Month
Forecast
  Figure 3-9 Global NaS Market Forecast, 2011-2020 (in million $)
  Table 3-8 Announced NaS battery projects as of 1st Quarter 2011 (in MW)
  Table 3-9 Total NaS Battery Installations by Country, 2011-2020 (in MW)

CHAPTER 4 THE SODIUM-METAL HALIDE BATTERY MARKET

Sodium-Metal Halide Market
  Figure 4-1 The World NaMx Battery Market, 2006-2010 (in million $)
  Market by Region: Europe Based
  Table 4-1 ZEBRA Battery use by OEM, 2011
  The Motive Energy Storage Market
  Market by Application: Electric Buses & Electric Cars are Top Markets for NaMx
  Table 4-2 Largest Customers of ZEBRA Batteries, 2001-2010
Market Drivers
  Figure 4-2 Key Market Drivers & Barriers Affecting the NaMx Battery Market
Global Availability of Production
  Table 4-3 NaMx Production Capacity for FZ SoNick & GE Transportation, 2011
  Figure 4-4 World NaMx Production Capacity, 2006, 2011, 2016, 2020 (in MWh)
The Cost of Production
  Figure 4-3 Cost Breakdown of a NaMx Battery (in percent)
  Figure 4-4 Cost of Nickel, 2001-2010 (in $/lb)
Future Market Expansion
  Motive Power for Large Vehicles
  Stationary Applications
  Table 4-5 Comparison of NaMx and Lead-Acid Batteries for a Telecommunications Cabinet
Legislation & Regulation
Job Creation
  Table 4-6 Incremental Job Creation in the NaMx Battery Market, 2012, 2016, 2020
Funding
Research Efforts
  Planar Sodium-Metal Halide Batteries
  Pairing NaMx Batteries with other Energy Storage for Motive Applications
Forecast
  Figure 4-5 Global NaMx Battery Market Forecast, 2011-2020 (in million $)

CHAPTER 5 MOLTEN SALT ENERGY STORAGE

The Molten-Salt Market
  Figure 5-1 Molten Salt Thermal Energy Storage Market, 2006-2010 (in million $)
  Market by Application
  Figure 5-2 CSP Thermal Installations by CSP Technology Type & Storage Type, 2006-2010 (in number of installations)
  Figure 5-3 CSP Thermal Energy Storage Installations by Type, 2006-2010 (in MWh)
  Table 5-1 CSP Plants in Operation with Molten Salt TES Systems, 2010
  Market by Region: The U.S. and Spain Spearhead Thermal Energy Storage
  Figure 5-4 CSP Molten Salt Thermal Energy Storage Installations by Country, 2006-2010 (in MWh)
Molten Salt Thermal Energy Storage Market Drivers & Barriers
  Figure 5-5 Key Market Drivers & Barriers Affecting the Molten Salt TES Market
The Cost of Production
  Table 5-2 Cost Estimate for Molten Salt Storage (in $/kWht)
  Figure 5-6 PPI for Mining of Potassium salts & Boron Compounds, Oct. 2007- Nov. 2010 (indexed to June 2007)
  World Salt Production for Thermal Storage
  Figure 5-7 SQM Industrial Nitrate Production and Industrial Chemical Revenue, 2007-2010 (in thousand MT & million $)
Potential Market Areas
  Figure 5-8 Marginal Annual Value of Each Incremental Hour of Storage for a Typical Texas CSP Plant (in $ million/hour)
  Figure 5-9 Increase in Annual Operating Profits of a CSP Plant in Texas if Spinning Reserves can be Sold (in %)
  Spinning Reserve
  Figure 5-10 Sample Dispatch of a CSP Plant with 6 Hours of TES in Texas (in MWh & $/MWh)
  Providing Energy at Peak Prices
Laws and Regulations
  CSP Legislation in Spain: The 50 MW Barrier Benefits Thermal Storage
  CSP Legislation in the U.S.: Tax Credits & Loan Guarantees
  Power Purchase Agreements
Job Creation
  Table 5-3 New Jobs Created from the Molten Salt TES Market, 2015, 2020
  Figure 5-11 U.S. SETP Thermal Energy Storage R&D Funding, FY2007-FY2011 (in million $)
Funding
  Table 5-4 CSP R&D Funding by Country (not including the U.S.), 2005-2009 (in million $)
Research Efforts
  Table 5-5 Current SETP Molten Salt Thermal Energy Storage Research Initiatives, 2011
  Modifying the Temperature Characteristics of the Salt Medium
  Innovative TES Systems Using Molten Salt
Forecast
  Figure 5-12 Global Molten Salt Thermal Energy Storage Market Forecast, 2011-2020 (in million $)
  Molten Salt TES Hits the Giga-Time
  Figure 5-13 Global Molten Salt TES Installations by Year for Median Forecast, 2008-2020 (in GWh)
  Table 5-6 Planned CSP Plants with Molten Salt TES Systems, Status as of June 2011
  Table 5-7 Cumulative Molten Salt TES Installations by Country for Median Forecast, 2010, 2015, 2020 (in GWh)

CHAPTER 6 THE HTS MARKET

The High Temperature Energy Storage Market
  Figure 6-1 The Global High Temperature Energy Storage Market, 2006-2010 (in million $)
Geographical Breakdown of the HTS Market
  Table 6-1 Key Countries for the High Temperature Energy Storage Market
Industry Breakdown of the HTS Market
  Figure 6-2 HTS Category & Market Channel Relationships
Resources
  Table 6-2 production of Minerals Used in HTS Technologies, 2010 (in billion pounds)
Job Creation
  Table 6-3 New Jobs Created from the High Temperature Energy Storage Market, 2015, 2020
Forecast
  Figure 6-3 The Global High Temperature Energy Storage Market, 2011-2020 (in million $)
  Figure 6-4 CSP Thermal Installations by CSP Technology Type & Storage Type, 2006-2010 (in number of installations)

CHAPTER 7 COMPETITORS

SODIUM-SULFUR BATTERY MANUFACTURERS

NGK Insulators
  Overview
  Performance
  Figure 7-1 NGK Insulators Revenue, FY2007-FY2011 (in million $)
  Figure 7-2 NGK Insulators NAS Battery Revenue, FY2007-FY2011 (in million $)
  Production
  Table 7-1 NGK NAS Battery Module Specifications
  New Developments
SICCAS
  Table 7-2 Performance Characteristics of the SICCAS SC-650 NaS Battery Cell

SODIUM- METAL HALIDE BATTERY MANUFACTURERS

EaglePicher Technologies
FZ SoNick
  Overview
  Performance
  Products & Production
  Table 7-3 FZ SoNick’s ZEBRA Battery Products, 2011
  New Developments
  Table 7-4 Evolution of FZ SoNick’s ZEBRA Battery Cells
GE Transportation
  Overview
  Performance
  Figure 7-3 GE Transportation’s Revenue, 2006-2010 (in billion $)
  Production
  Table 7-5 GE Transportation’s Durathon Battery Products (Pre-Production), 2011
  New Developments
Sumitomo Electric Industries

THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE MANUFACTURERS

  Figure 7-4 Global TES Market by Competitor Based on Installed and Current Projects, June 2011 (in MWh installed)
Abengoa
Overview
  Performance
  Figure 7-5 Abengoa Solar’s Revenue, 2007-2010 (in million $)
  Table 7-6 Abengoa Solar’s Portfolio of Projects as of December 2010 (in MW)
  Production
  Table 7-7 Abengoa Solar’s Molten Salt TES Projects as of June 2011
  New Developments
Archimede Solar Energy
Flagsol
  Overview
  Performance
  Figure 7-6 Solar Millennium’s Technology & Construction Segment Revenue, FY2006-FY2010 (in million $)
  Production
  Table 7-8 Specifications of Flagsol’s Two-Tank Indirect Molten Salt TES Systems
  Table 7-9 Flagsol’s Molten Salt TES Projects as of June 2011
  New Developments
INITEC Energia
  Table 7-10 INITEC Energia’s Molten Salt TES Projects as of June 2011
Pratt & Whitney
  Overview
  Performance
  Figure 7-7 Pratt & Whitney Revenue, 2006-2011 (in billion $)
  Production
  Table 7-11 SolarReserve’s Molten Salt TES Projects as of June 2011
  New Developments
SENER
  Overview
  Performance
  Figure 7-8 SENER Revenue, 2006-2010 (in million $)
  Production
  Table 7-12 SENER’s Molten Salt TES Projects as of June 2011
  Table 7-13 Specifications of SENER’s Molten Salt TES Systems
  New Developments

APPENDIX: COMPANY CONTACT INFORMATION

NaS Battery Manufacturers & Balance of System Suppliers
NaMx Battery Companies
Molten Salt Thermal Energy Storage Companies
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