Analyzing Microwave Power Transmission & Solar Power Satellite Systems 2016

Date: September 1, 2016
Pages: 170
Price:
US$ 875.00
Publisher: Aruvian's R'search
Report type: Strategic Report
Delivery: E-mail Delivery (PDF), Hard Copy Mail Delivery, CD-ROM Mail Delivery
ID: A348944B5B4EN
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Analyzing Microwave Power Transmission & Solar Power Satellite Systems 2016
Microwave power transmission (MPT) involves the usage of microwaves to transmit power through outer space or the atmosphere without the need for wires. It is a sub-type of the more general wireless energy transfer methods, and is the most interesting because microwave devices offer the highest efficiency of conversion between DC-electricity and microwave radiative power.

Following World War II, which saw the development of high-power microwave emitters known as cavity magnetrons, the idea of using microwaves to transmit power was researched. In 1964, William C. Brown demonstrated a miniature helicopter equipped with a combination antenna and rectifier device called a rectenna. The rectenna converted microwave power into electricity, allowing the helicopter to fly. In principle, the rectenna is capable of very high conversion efficiencies - over 90% in optimal circumstances.

Most proposed MPT systems now usually include a phased array microwave transmitter. While these have lower efficiency levels they have the advantage of being electrically steered using no moving parts, and are easier to scale to the necessary levels that a practical MPT system requires.

Aruvian's R'search presents a complete analysis of the myriad uses of Microwave Power Transmission, and one of its biggest application – Solar Power Satellite Systems. In its report, Analyzing Microwave Power Transmission & Solar Power Satellite Systems, Aruvian's R'search puts forth an analytical view of wireless transmission systems, the basics of microwave power transmission systems, its uses, benefits, challenges facing the technology, global activities going on in the field of MPT, and its applications.

One of the biggest applications of microwave power transmission at the moment is its utility in solar power satellite systems, or SPS. The report takes an in-depth view on the basics of the system, how microwave power transmission is used in SPS, the challenges facing SPS, environmental and health impact of the SPS and much more. The report further also analyzes the Space Solar Power System (SSPS), delving into the vast amount of research conducted on this topic by NASA.

The leading industry contributors to the field of microwave power transmission is also looked at in the report.
1 A. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

B. UNDERSTANDING THE TRANSMISSION MEDIUM

C. ANALYZING WIRELESS ENERGY TRANSFER/WIRELESS POWER TRANSMISSION

C.1 Overview
C.2 Modern Day Usage of Wireless Power Transmission
C.3 Determining the Power & Size Levels
C.4 Efficiency of Wireless Power Transmission Systems
C.5 Near Field Wireless Transmission Techniques
C.5.1 Induction
C.5.2 Resonant Induction
C.6 Far Field Wireless Transmission Techniques
C.6.1 Radio & Microwave
C.6.2 Laser
C.6.3 Electrical Conduction

D. INTRODUCTION TO MICROWAVE POWER TRANSMISSION

D.1 History of Microwave Power Transmission
D.2 Overview of Microwave Power Transmission
D.3 Safety Concerns
D.4 Basic Idea behind MPT
D.5 Uses of MPT
D.6 Applications of MPT
D.7 Current Technology
D.8 Upcoming Technology

E. LOOKING AT GLOBAL MPT ACTIVITIES

E.1 Microwave Power Transmission in Canada
E.2 Microwave Power Transmission in Europe
E.3 Microwave Power Transmission in the US

F. ANALYZING THE SOLAR POWER SATELLITE (SPS)

F.1 Introduction
F.2 History of SPS
F.3 Understanding the SPS Concept
F.4 Advantages of SPS
F.5 Challenges
F.5.1 High Costs
F.5.2 Usage of Terrestrial Materials
F.5.3 Concept of a Space Elevator
F.5.4 Safety Issues
F.6 Critics of SPS
F.7 Economical Analysis of SPS
F.7.1 Benefits of SPS in Present-Day Energy Scenario
F.7.2 Comparing SPS with Fossil Fuels
F.7.3 Comparing SPS with Nuclear Fission
F.7.4 Comparing SPS with Nuclear Fusion
F.7.5 Comparing SPS with Global Solar Power
F.7.6 Feasibility of Mass Production of Solar Panels
F.8 Comparing SPS with Biofuels
F.9 Comparing SPS with Wind Power

G. ANALYZING THE DESIGN OF SPS

G.1 Introduction
G.2 Conversion of Solar Energy
G.3 Comparing Photovoltaics, Concentrating Photovoltaic Systems, & Solar Dynamic
G.4 Lifetime Cycle Analysis
G.5 System Energy Benefits
G.6 Looking at Wireless Power Transmission from Earth
G.7 Determining the Spacecraft Size
G.8 Earth-based Antenna – Critical Part of the SPS Concept

H. CURRENT STATUS OF SPS

I. MICROWAVE POWER TRANSMISSION ON SPS

I.1 Looking at Microwave Generators
I.1.1 Power Generation Devices & Circuits
I.1.2 Comparing Microwave Transmitting Routes
I.1.3 Microwave Antennas
I.1.4 Beam Control & Ongoing Research
I.2 Looking at Rectenna & Ground Segments
I.2.1 Rectenna
I.2.2 Elements of the Antenna
I.2.3 A Look at the Rectifier Circuit
I.2.4 Overall Microwave Reception
I.2.5 Trends in Rectenna Research
I.2.6 Commercialization of Rectennas
I.2.7 Technology for Establishing a Ground Network

J. EFFECTS OF THE SPS

J.1 Environmental Impact of the SPS Microwave Beam
J.2 Impact of SPS on Earth
J.3 Impact on Communication
J.4 Effect of MPT on Human Health

K. TECHNICAL ISSUES WITH SPS

L. SPS RADIO TECHNOLOGIES

L.1 Microwave Power Transmission
L.2 Microwave Power Devices
L.3 Rectennas
L.4 Calibration & Control

M. ANALYZING THE DIFFERENT SOLAR POWER SATELLITE MODELS

M.1 ‘Abacus’ Satellite Configuration
M.2 JAXA Models
M.3 Glaser SPS Concept

M.4 SPS2000

M.5 ‘SolarDisc’ Space Solar Power Concept

N. ANALYZING THE SPACE SOLAR POWER SYSTEM & MPT

N.1 Introduction
N.2 Analysis of the System
N.2.1 Analyzing the Microwave Power Transmission Subsystem
N.2.2 Analyzing the Beam Forming and Control Subsystem
N.2.3 Analyzing the Microwave Receiving & Power Rectifying Subsystem
N.3 Analysis of the Major Subsystem Accomplishments
N.3.1 Accomplishments of the Microwave Power Transmission Subsystem
N.3.2 Accomplishments of the Beam Forming and Control Subsystem
N.3.3 Accomplishments of the Microwave Receiving & Power Rectifying Subsystem

O. SPACE SOLAR POWER ACTIVITIES OF NASA

O.1 Introduction
O.2 Defining Space Solar Power
O.3 Importance of Space Solar Power
O.4 Analyzing Recent SSP Findings
O.5 Analyzing SPS & SSP Activities in the United States - A Historical Look
O.6 NASA’s ‘Fresh Look’ Study
O.6.1 Analyzing the SunTower SPS System
O.6.2 Analyzing the Solar Disc SPS System
O.6.3 Conclusion
O.7 Analyzing the SSP Concept Definition Study by NASA
O.8 Analyzing the SSP Exploratory Research & Technology (SERT) Program
O.8.1 The Abacus Concept
O.8.2 The Integrated Symmetrical Concentrator Concept
O.8.3 Conclusion of SERT in 2000
O.9 Role of the National Research Council
O.10 Current NASA R&D in SSP

P. SPACE SOLAR POWER ACTIVITIES IN JAPAN

P.1 Analyzing the JAXA Models
P.1.1 Challenges with the 2001 Model
P.1.2 Challenges with the 2002 Model
P.1.3 Looking at the 2003 Model

Q. CASE STUDIES

Q.1 Microwave Power Transmission in China
Q.2 Microwave Power Transmission in Indonesia

R. LEADING INDUSTRY CONTRIBUTORS

R.1 Anaren Inc.
R.2 Conolog Corporation
R.3 CPI International Inc.
R.4 Emrise Corporation
R.5 Kevlin Corporation
R.6 L-3 Electron Technologies Inc.
R.7 MEGA Industries LLC
R.8 Microwave Engineering Corporation
R.9 Microwave Power Devices, Inc.
R.10 Microwave Research Corporation
R.11 Microwave Transmission Systems, Inc.
R.12 Norsat International Inc.
R.13 Phase Matrix, Inc.
R.14 RPG Transmission Limited
R.15 Satellite Communication Systems (SCS)
R.16 Tyco Electronics

S. APPENDIX

T. Glossary of Terms

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1: Tesla Tower
Figure 2: Microwave Power Transmission over 1.54km
Figure 3: Diagram of Basic Rectenna
Figure 4: Photons with lower energy than the band gap pass through the cell. A photon with energy equal to or greater than the band gap creates an electron hole pair which creates current. Any the difference in energy between the photon and the band gap is lost as heat.
Figure 5: Projected Real-World Efficiencies for Multijunction PV Cells at a Concentration of 500 Suns
Figure 6: SHARP Flight Experiment and 1/8 Model
Figure 7: MILAX Airplane Experiment and Model Airplane
Figure 8: Solar Power Satellite Reference System
Figure 9: Microwave Power Transmission System using Electron Tubes
Figure 10: Implementation of Microwave Transmission using Semiconductors
Figure 11: Power Density (10 km from center of beam) vs. Antenna Amplitude Taper
Figure 12: Beam Pattern when Beam Deviates 0.016°
Figure 13: Power Density (10 km from center of beam) vs. Antenna Amplitude Taper
Figure 14: Typical Magnitude of Input Reflection
Figure 15: Typical Scan Loss Curves
Figure 16: Layout of the Basic Rectenna
Figure 17: μ-Chip Antenna
Figure 18: μ-Chip Rectifier
Figure 19: PowerSat - Efficiency of Power Conversion Subsystems
Figure 20: Abacus Reflector
Figure 21: JAXA 2003 Model
Figure 22: Glaser’s SPS Concept
Figure 23: General View of SPS2000
Figure 24: GW "SolarDisc" SPS System Concept
Figure 25: Microwave Power Transmission Subsystem
Figure 26: Functional Block Diagram
Figure 27: Beam Forming and Control Subsystem
Figure 28: Principle of Angle Detection using Pilot Signal
Figure 29: Expansion Order of Planar-Expansion Rectenna Array
Figure 30: Phase Shift Control Magnetron Output Spectrum & Phase Difference between Injection Signal & Output against Anode Current
Figure 31: Microwave Beam Pattern
Figure 32: Pilot Signal Receiver/Transmitter Detection Angle Error
Figure 33: Planar-Expansion Type Receiving & Rectifying Subsystem
Figure 34: Fuel Shares of Energy Use for Electricity Generation by 2020
Figure 35: The “SunTower” Solar Power Satellite System Concept
Figure 36: Solar Disc Concept for a Space Solar Power Satellite in Geostationary Orbit & a SunTower Derived Transfer Vehicle
Figure 37:An Integrated Symmetrical Concentrator SPS in GEO & a Solar Clipper Freighter
Figure 38: The Abacus Concept
Figure 39: The Integrated Symmetrical Concentrator Concept
Figure 40: SPSS Roadmap of JAXA
Figure 41: Year 2001 Reference Model
Figure 42: Year 2002 Reference Model
Figure 43: Year 2003 Reference Model
Figure 44: Schematic View of a Space Power Relay Satellite
Figure 45: Direct Solar Pumping Laser Oscillation
Figure 46: L-SPS Concept
Figure 47: Lunar Power System
Figure 48: GEO Harris Wheel
Figure 49: GEO Heliostat
Figure 50: GEO Sun Tower
Figure 51: Stationary High Altitude Relay Platform (SHARP)

LIST OF TABLES

Table 1: Characteristics of Electron Tubes
Table 2: Characteristics of Semiconductor Radio Transmitters
Table 3: Typical Parameters for SPS Retrodirective Systetm
Table 4: RF-ID and Frequencies
Table 5: Typical Parameters for Retrodirective SPS System
Table 6: Typical Parameters for Retrodirective Ground Station System
Table 7: Electromagnetic Spectrum for RFID & Wireless Sensors
Table 8: Physical Parameters of Spritz SPS Transmitter
Table 9: Environmental and Safety Issues of SPS
Table 10: CO2 Emissions of the SPS Project
Table 11: Energy Payback Time Required for SPS
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