Analyzing Fusion Energy 2016

Date: April 1, 2016
Pages: 200
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Publisher: Aruvian's R'search
Report type: Strategic Report
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Analyzing Fusion Energy 2016
Fusion power is the power generated by nuclear fusion reactions. In this kind of reaction, two light atomic nuclei fuse together to form a heavier nucleus and in doing so, release a large amount of energy. In a more general sense, the term can also refer to the production of net usable power from a fusion source, similar to the usage of the term 'steam power.' Most design studies for fusion power plants involve using the fusion reactions to create heat, which is then used to operate a steam turbine, which drives generators to produce electricity. Except for the use of a thermonuclear heat source, this is similar to most coal, oil, and gas-fired power stations as well as fission-driven nuclear power stations.

Aruvian Research brings a research report on the lucrative field of fusion energy – Analyzing Fusion Energy. The research report takes a look at the importance of fusion power in an era where the usage of renewable energy has become a norm.

The report begins with an analysis of the basics of fusion energy, the various stages of development in fusion power, the magnetic concept, the Z-pinch concept, inertial confinement concept and many others. The role of tokamaks are analyzed in the report, along with the physics of fusion reactors. The concept of plasma heating is analyzed so as to provide a better understanding of fusion power. Barriers to the development of fusion power such as nuclear proliferation, environmental problems, and regulatory problems are also analyzed.

A section is dedicated to understanding the fusion fuel cycle in which we look at the D-T fuel cycle, the D-D fuel cycle, the D3He fuel cycle and the p-11B fuel cycle.

The workings of a fusion power plant is analyzed in details including the confinement theories, materials utilized, and economics of fusion power. We also take a look at the pros and cons of fusion power. Further to this, Aruvian’s report also analyzes the different types of fusion power available such as nuclear fusion, inertial confinement fusion, inertial electrostatic confinement, laser inertial, amongst others.

Apart from analyzing the role of a tokamak in fusion power, we also provide the profiles of the various tokamaks in use or under research today such as ADITYA, KSTAR, JET, J-60, DEMO, and others. The role of X-divertors is also analyzed. The most famous project in fusion power – the ITER – is also analyzed in-depth, along with the role the US plays in the project. At the same time, we also take a look at EU’s Fusion Energy Program.

With the waves its making in the energy industry, it is a given fact that China cannot be far behind when it comes to discussing an emerging technology in the energy industry. Aruvian’s R’search analyzes the fusion power industry in China, as well as in Europe and the United States.

Environmental impact of fusion power and whether or not fusion power is considered to be safe is an issue facing the world today. Aruvian Research takes these topics under consideration and also looks at what is happening in terms of R&D in this industry.

A case study on the FIREX Program and the ongoing efforts to create a fusion-powered spacecraft sets apart this research report on Fusion Power.
A. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

B. INTRODUCTION TO FUSION ENERGY

B.1 What is Fusion Power?
B.2 Research History
  B.2.1 Background
  B.2.2 Magnetic Concept
  B.2.3 Z-Pinch Concept
  B.2.4 Laser Inertial Confinement
  B.2.5 Inertial Confinement Concept
  B.2.6 Other Concepts
B.3 The Fusion Process
B.4 Tokamak: Making Fusion Power Possible
B.5 What are the Conditions for Fusion?
B.6 How is Fusion Energy Produced?
B.7 Physics of Fusion, Fusion Reactors, and Research Reactors
B.8 Understanding Plasma Heating
  B.8.1 Overview
  B.8.2 Ohmic Heating
  B.8.3 Injection of Neutral Beam
  B.8.4 Radio Frequency Heating
B.9 Fusion Energy: An Unlimited Source of Energy
B.10 Controlling a Fusion Reaction
B.11 Why is Fusion Power Important?
B.12 Is Fusion Energy Safe?
B.13 Commercialization of Fusion Power
B.14 Comparing Fusion Power to Other Energy Sources

C. UNDERSTANDING THE FUSION FUEL CYCLE

C.1 Overview of the Fusion Fuel Cycle
C.2 D-T Fuel Cycle: Easiest Reaction
C.3 D-D Fuel Cycle: Reaction of Deuterium
C.4 D-3He Fuel Cycle: Second Generation Approach
C.5 p-11B Fuel Cycle: Aneutronic Fusion

D. BARRIERS TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF FUSION POWER

D.1 Possibility of Accidents
D.2 Release of Effluents
D.3 Managing Radioactive Wastes
D.4 Nuclear Proliferation
D.5 Feasibility as a Renewable Energy Source
D.6 Regulatory Barriers

E. DEVELOPING FUSION POWER PLANTS

E.1 How a Fusion Power Plant Works
E.2 Confinement Theories
E.3 Usage of Unusual Particles to Catalyze Fusion
E.4 Understanding the Systems of a Fusion Power Plant
E.5 Development of Materials for Fusion Reactors
E.6 Economics of Fusion Power

F. LOOKING AT THE ADVANTAGES & DISADVANTAGES OF FUSION POWER

G. MARKET STATUS

H. ANALYZING THE TYPES OF FUSION POWER

H.1 Nuclear Fusion
H.2 Inertial Confinement Fusion
H.3 Magnetic Confinement Fusion
H.4 Inertial Electrostatic Confinement
H.5 Laser Inertial
H.6 Cold Fusion
H.7 Bubble Fusion

I. ANALYZING THE ROLE OF A TOKAMAK

I.1 What is a Tokamak?
I.2 Experimental research of Tokamak Systems
I.3 Looking at the Toroidal Design
I.4 Concept of Tokamak Cooling

J. PROFILES OF TOKAMAKS

J.1 Aditya
J.2 Alcator C-Mod
J.3 ASDEX Upgrade
J.4 DIII-D
J.5 DEMO
J.6 EAST
J.7 FTU
J.8 HiPER
J.9 HT-7
J.10 Joint European Torus
J.11 JT-60
J.12 KSTAR
J.13 MAST
J.14 NIF
J.15 NSTX
J.16 START
J.17 STOR-M
J.18 T-15
J.19 TCV
J.20 TEXTOR Tokamak
J.21 TFTR
J.22 Tokamak de Fontenay aux Roses
J.23 Tore Supra
J.24 UCLA Electric Tokamak
J.25 Wendelstein 7-X

K. EMERGENCE OF THE X-DIVERTORS

L. UNDERSTANDING THE ITER PROJECT

L.1 Introduction
L.2 History of the Project
L.3 ITER’s Mission
L.4 Reactor Profile
L.5 Funding for the Project
L.6 Understanding the ITER Vacuum Vessel
L.7 US DOE’s Role in the ITER
L.8 US ITER Funding
L.9 Public Response to the ITER Project

M. EU FUSION ENERGY PROGRAM

M.1 Overview
M.2 European Joint Undertaking for the Development of Fusion Energy (Fusion For Energy)
M.3 European Fusion Development Agreement (EFDA)
M.4 Various Multi-lateral Agreements

N. U.S. DOE FUSION ENERGY SCIENCES PROGRAM

O. FUSION ENERGY IN CHINA

P. ISSUES IN HARNESSING FUSION ENERGY IN A COST-EFFECTIVE MANNER

P.1 Introduction
P.2 Distribution of the Plasma Power Flux
P.3 Surface Heat Flux Removal in Plasma-Facing Components
P.4 Power Conversion and Operating Under High Temperatures
P.5 Ensuring Stable Power Production
P.6 Ensuring the Lifetime of In-vessel Components
P.7 Ensuring the Control of Fusion Plasma
P.8 Controlling the Deuterium Tritium fuel
P.9 Plant Maintenance Issues

Q. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT AND SAFETY OF FUSION POWER

Q.1 Introduction
Q.2 Handling of Tritium
Q.3 Confinement and Control of Final Product
Q.4 Management of Radioactive Waste

R. RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT OF FUSION POWER

R.1 Introduction
R.2 Spin-offs from Fusion Power Technologies
R.3 Looking at High Heat Flux Components
R.4 Looking at Laser Anemometry and the Wind Turbine Industry
R.5 Looking at Superconductors for MRIs
R.6 Industrial Applications
R.7 Technology Usage in Microelectronics
R.8 Technology Usage in Advanced Space Thrusters
R.9 Technology Usage in Superconducting Magnet Systems
R.10 Development of Carbon Composites in Brakes

S. CASE STUDY: FIREX PROGRAM

S.1 Overview
S.2 FIREX Project
S.3 Future after FIREX
S.4 Conclusion

T. CASE STUDY: SPACE EXPLORATION WITH FUSION POWER

T.1 Introduction
T.2 Creating a Fusion-powered Spacecraft
T.3 Utilizing Fusion Energy into a Propulsion System
T.4 VASIMR – A Precursor to Fusion Propulsion
T.5 Gas Dynamic Mirror (GDM) Fusion Propulsion System
T.6 Feasibility of Magnetic Fusion for Space Applications
T.7 Fusion Reactor Designs for Space Exploration
T.8 Developing Fusion Power for Space Exploration

U. APPENDIX

V. GLOSSARY OF TERMS

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1: Tokamak
Figure 2: Plasma Confinement
Figure 3: Glowing Plasma inside the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor
Figure 4: Comparison of Amount of Fusion Fuel Required to Produce the Same Amount of Energy as with Other conventional Energy Resources
Figure 5: Increase in Fusion Reaction Rate with Temperature until it Maximizes and then Gradually Drops Off
Figure 6: Fusion Power Plant Energy Conversion
Figure 7: Tokamak Magnetic Fields
Figure 8: Plasma Held in the START
Figure 9: X-Divertor Modular Coils
Figure 10: Timeline for the FIREX Project
Figure 11: Heating laser LFEX (Laser for Fusion EXperiment), for FIREX-I
Figure 12: Field-Reversed Configuration (FRC)
Figure 13: Tandem Mirror Engine
Figure 14: Tandem Mirror with Life Support and Other Systems
Figure 15: Spheromak
Figure 16: Inertial-Electrostatic Confinement (IEC)
Figure 17: VISTA ICF Space Propulsion Design
Figure 18: D-3He Fusion Capabilities and Space Development
Figure 19: Fusion Comparison with Other Energy Sources
Figure 20: Elements of a D-T(Li) Fusion System
Figure 21: IFE
Figure 22: IFE Chamber
Figure 23: Toroidal Magnetic Containers
Figure 24: JET (1997)
Figure 25: Fusion power development in the D-T campaigns of JET (full and dotted lines) and TFTR (dashed lines), in different regimes: (Ia) Hot-Ion Mode in limiter plasma; (Ib) Hot-ion H-Mode; (II) Optimized shear; and (III) Steady-state ELMY-H Modes.
Figure 26: Magnetic Sensors and Controllers
Figure 27: Large Helical Coil Device
Figure 28: ITER: The International Burning Plasma Experiment
Figure 29: ITER Schedule
Figure 30: Energy R&D in the US (30 Years)
Figure 31: Fusion Energy
Figure 32: Progress in Magnetic Fusion Research
Figure 33: Integrated Real-time Plasma Control System
Figure 34: Magnetically Confined Plasmas in a Tokamak
Figure 35: Different Fusion Reactions
Figure 36: Inertial Confinement Fusion Concept
Figure 37: DIII-D Tokamak Capabilities

LIST OF TABLES

Table 1: Technology Readiness Levels for Control of Plasma Power Distribution
Table 2: Technology Readiness Levels for Heat and Particle Flux Handling (PFC’s)
Table 3: Technology Readiness Levels for High Temperature Operation and Power Conversion
Table 4: Technology Readiness Levels for Power Core Lifetime
Table 5: Technology Readiness Levels for Plasma Control
Table 6: Technology Readiness Levels for Fuel Cycle Control
Table 7: Technology Readiness Levels for Tritium Control and Confinement
Table 8: Technology Readiness Levels for Activation Product Control and Confinement
Table 9: Spin-off Successes Involving R&D in the Associations
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