Environmental Protection in China

Date: August 22, 2011
Pages: 152
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Publisher: Guangzhou CCM Information Science & Technology Co., Ltd. (CCM)
Report type: Strategic Report
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Environmental Protection in China
Accompanied with China’s spectacular economic growth and industrial production expansion, environmental problems are mounting, with water pollution and water scarcity burdening the economy, rising levels of air pollution endangering the health of millions of Chinese, and much of the country's land rapidly turning into desert.

Environmental protection industrialization started very late in China compared with developed countries. However, with rising environmental concerns from both domestic and global communities, Chinese government has realized the importance and urgency to improve its environmental protection, fully aware that pollution woes are impairing its economy, public health, social stability, and international reputation. It is now taking measures to balance its economy growth and environment protection, having released a series of laws, incentives, regulations and standards; requiring all production enterprises and construction projects to take actions, as most pollution are from production and construction.

Although environmental protection has been implemented all around the country, there are great variations in actual situation.
  • First, enforcement varies largely in different regions. In the north of China, enforcement on waste water discharge requirement is very rigid, due to insufficient water resources and local government’s strong supervision. In contrast, in the east and south, many enterprises may discharge waste water without treatment, due to weak supervision from local governments.
  • Second, the situation in large and small cities is different. Governmental supervision in large cities will be much more rigid than small cities and counties. If an enterprise wants to build a plant in large cities, it has to pass numerous environmental protection evaluations; while when the plant is set up in small cities or counties, there will be few checks from government institutions.
  • Third, cost for environmental protection varies largely from industry to industry. For example, such investment needed in agrochemical and pharmaceutical industries is much higher than that in biotechnology industry, as production of pesticides and drugs generates much virulent waste which needs deep treatment before discharged. The government requires these producers to be equipped with waste water deep treatment facilities, which cost much more than the common ones needed by biotechnology enterprises which do not generate such virulent waste. Besides, cost of waste gas treatment is much higher than that of waste water. Generally, cost of a set of flue gas desulfurization equipment is 10 times as much as that of common waste water treatment equipment. Therefore, for energy producers, such as thermal power enterprises, larger investment will be needed in environmental protection than other enterprises having to deal with only waste water, as thermal power enterprises have to deal with much waste gas.

Under rising pressure to reduce environmental impacts caused by their operations, many enterprises have to invest more than before in environmental protection to meet governmental requirements. How are enterprises in China dealing with environmental protection problems? What are they doing to save cost and survive? There are great differences by region, industry, enterprise type, scale, etc.

Most enterprises in China have their own methods to cope with environmental protection problem. Generally, those large state-owned and well-known foreign enterprises perform better in following the policies, building waste treatment projects according to related standards. For those small scale enterprises, however, they may just build simple waste treatment facilities to pass the check while never use them for environmental protection purpose. Some small private enterprises don’t invest in water treatment at all, and set the plants in remote regions, where supervision from local government is loose as some short-sighted local governments may turn a blind eye to the pollution, for a faster GDP growth.
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

INTRODUCTION

I ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION REGULATIONS IN CHINA

I-1 Analysis of national regulations
  I-1-1 Overview of national environmental protection regulations
  I-1-2 Description of key national regulation
    I-1-2-1 Environmental Protection Law of the People's Republic of China
    I-1-2-2 Law of the People's Republic of China on the Prevention and Control of Atmospheric Pollution
    I-1-2-3 Enforcement Regulations for Law on Prevention of Air Pollution of the People's Republic of China
    I-1-2-4 Law of the People's Republic of China on Prevention and Control of Water Pollution
    I-1-2-5 Rules for Implementation of the Law of the People's Republic of China on Prevention and Control of Water Pollution
    I-1-2-6 Law of the People's Republic of China on Prevention and Control of Pollution from Environmental Noise
    I-1-2-7 Law of the People's Republic of China on Prevention of Environmental Pollution Caused by Solid Waste
    I-1-2-8 Cleaner Production Promotion Law of the People's Republic of China
    I-1-2-9 Law of the People's Republic of China on Conserving Energy
    I-1-2-10 Eliminate ineffective capacity task in 2010
    I-1-2-11 Catalogue for the Guidance of Foreign Investment Industries (Amended in 2007)
    I-1-2-12 Catalogue of Resource Comprehensive Utilization
    I-1-2-13 Ordinance on the Collection and Management of Pollution Discharge Fee
    I-1-2-14 Notice on declaration of 2010 central budget key pollution emission specific fund
    I-1-2-15 Measures on the Administration of Key Water Pollutants Discharge Permit in Huaihe River and Taihu Lake valley
    I-1-2-16 Notice on Printing and Distributing Proposal for Prevention and Control of Water Pollution of Huaihe River, Haihe River, Liaohe River, Chaohu Lake, Dianchi Lake and Upper and Middle Yellow River
    I-1-2-17 Notice on Eliminating Outmoded Producers of Papermaking, Alcohol, MSG and Citric Acid
    I-1-2-18 Notice on Eliminating Outmoded Production Capacity of Papermaking, Alcohol, MSG and Citric Acid
    I-1-2-19 Notice on Further Strengthening Restriction of Saccharin Production and Sales
    I-1-2-20 People's Republic of China Food Safety Law
    I-1-2-21 Prevention and Protection Regulations for Entrophication in Lake and Reservoir
    I-1-2-22 Production, Supervision and Management Rules for Food Additives
    I-1-2-23 Management Measures for Food Additive Hygiene
    I-1-2-24 Discharge Standards of Water Pollutants for Pharmaceutical Industry With Fermentation Products Category
    I-1-2-25 Cleaner Production Standards for MSG Industry
    I-1-2-26 Discharge standards for MSG industry
    I-1-2-27 Industrial Pollutant Discharge Standard in Citric Acid Industry
    I-1-2-28 Production and Exports Prohibition for Citric Acid Enterprises without Achievement of Discharge Standard
    I-1-2-29 Guidance for Promoting Healthy Development of Corn Deep Processing Industry
    I-1-2-30 Implementation Framework for Cleaner Production in Fermenting Industry
    I-1-2-31 Evaluation Index System (Trial) for Cleaner Production in Fermentation Industry
    I-1-2-32 Integrated Wastewater Discharge Standard
    I-1-2-33 Air Pollutants Emission Standard for Coal-Burning, Oil-Burning and Gas-Fired Boiler
    I-1-2-34 Hygienic Management Measures for Food Nutritive Fortifier
    I-1-2-35 Hygienic Standard for Food Additives Manufacturer
    I-1-2-36 Integrated Emission Standard of Air Pollutants
    I-1-2-37 Discharge Standards of Water Pollutants for Pharmaceutical Industry With Extraction Production
    I-1-2-38 Discharge Standards of Water Pollutants for Pharmaceutical Industry With Chemical Synthesis Production
I-2 Analysis of local regulations
  I-2-1 Description of key local regulations
    I-2-1-1 Regulation of Yangzi River Delta
    I-2-1-2 Regulation of Pearl River Delta
    I-2-1-3 Regulation of north of China
    I-2-1-4 Regulation of central of China
    I-2-1-5 Regulation of west of China
    I-2-1-6 Regulation of Shandong
    I-2-1-7 Regulation of Ningxia
    I-2-1-8 Regulation of Liaoning
    I-2-1-9 Regulation of Jilin
    I-2-1-10 Regulation of Heilongjiang
    I-2-1-11 Regulation of Inner Mongolia
  I-2-2 Penalty and Promotion cases by region
I-3 Analysis of durability of respective regulation
  I-3-1 Changes of regulations- Past, present, future
  I-3-2 Conclusion and Outlook on regulatory durability
I-4 Recent regulation dynamics and future trends
I-5 Analysis of regulations having significant influences on technology
I-6 Influence of the regulation on each industry: Feed/Food add., health ingredient
I-7 Industry regulations

II HOW ARE MAJOR COMPANIES OF EACH INDUSTRY REACTING TO THOSE REGULATIONS AND WHAT STEPS ARE THEY TAKING OR WILL THEY TAKE?

II-1 Changchun Dacheng Industrial Group Co., Ltd.
II-2 Fufeng Group Co., Ltd.
II-3 Baolingbao Biology Co., Ltd.
II-4 Anhui BBCA Biochemical Co., Ltd.
II-5 Zhejiang Medicine Co., Ltd.
II-6 Shandong Futaste Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd.

III CONCLUSION: SECTORS INFLUENCED MORE BY POLICY

LIST OF TABLES

Table Brief introduction of 'key regions for prevention and control of pollution'
Table I-1-2-1-1 5W1H of Environmental Protection Law of the People's Republic of China
Table I-1-2-2-1 5W1H of Law of the People's Republic of China on the Prevention and Control of Atmospheric Pollution
Table I-1-2-3-1 5W1H of Enforcement Regulations for Law on Prevention of Air Pollution of the People's Republic of China
Table I-1-2-4-1 5W1H of Law of the People's Republic of China on Prevention and Control of Water Pollution
Table I-1-2-5-1 5W1H of Rules for Implementation of the Law of the People's Republic of China on Prevention and Control of Water Pollution
Table I-1-2-6-1 5W1H of Law of the People's Republic of China on Prevention and Control of Pollution from Environmental Noise
Table I-1-2-7-1 5W1H of Law of the People's Republic of China on Prevention of Environmental Pollution Caused by Solid Waste
Table I-1-2-8-1 5W1H of Cleaner Production Promotion Law of the People's Republic of China
Table I-1-2-9-1 5W1H of Law of the People's Republic of China on Conserving Energy
Table I-1-2-10-1 5W1H of Eliminate ineffective capacity task in 2010
Table I-1-2-11-1 5W1H of Catalogue for the Guidance of Foreign Investment Industries
Table I-1-2-12-1 5W1H of Catalogue of Resource Comprehensive Utilization
Table I-1-2-13-1 5W1H of Ordinance on the Collection and Management of Pollution Discharge Fee
Table I-1-2-14-1 5W1H of Notice on declaration of 2010 central budget key pollution emission specific fund
Table I-1-2-15-1 5W1H of Measures on the Administration of Key Water Pollutants Discharge Permit in Huaihe River and Taihu Lake valley
Table I-1-2-16-1 5W1H of Notice on Printing and Distributing Proposal for Prevention and Control of Water Pollution of Huaihe River, Haihe River, Liaohe River, Chaohu Lake, Dianchi Lake and Upper and Middle Yellow River
Table I-1-2-17-1 5W1H of Notice on Eliminating Outmoded Producers of Papermaking, Alcohol, MSG and Citric Acid
Table I-1-2-18-1 5W1H of Notice on Eliminating Outmoded Production Capacity of Papermaking, Alcohol, MSG and Citric Acid
Table I-1-2-19-1 5W1H of Notice on Further Strengthening Restriction of Saccharin Production and Sales
Table I-1-2-20-1 5W1H of People's Republic of China Food Safety Law
Table I-1-2-21-1 5W1H of Prevention and Protection Regulations for Entrophication in Lake and Reservoir
Table I-1-2-22-1 5W1H of Production, Supervision and Management Rules for Food Additives
Table I-1-2-23-1 5W1H of Management Measures for Food Additive Hygiene
Table I-1-2-24-1 5W1H of Discharge Standards of Water Pollutants for Pharmaceutical Industry With Fermentation Products Category
Table I-1-2-24-2 Limited value of water pollutants discharged
Table I-1-2-24-3 Limited value of water pollutants discharged
Table I-1-2-24-4 Limited value of water pollutants discharged with advanced control technique
Table I-1-2-24-5 Unit production discharge standard for pharmaceutical enterprises with fermentation products production
Table I-1-2-25-1 5W1H of Cleaner Production Standards for MSG Industry
Table I-1-2-26-1 5W1H of Discharge standards for MSG industry
Table I-1-2-26-2 Industrial water pollutant discharge standard in MSG industry
Table I-1-2-26-3 Industrial water pollutant discharge standard in MSG industry
Table I-1-2-26-4 Maximum emission concentration allowed in the boundary district of buffer belt
Table I-1-2-27-1 5W1H of Industrial Pollutant Discharge Standard in Citric Acid Industry
Table I-1-2-27-2 Industrial pollutant discharge standard in citric acid industry
Table I-1-2-27-3 Industrial pollutant discharge standard in citric acid industry
Table I-1-2-28-1 5W1H of Production and Exports Prohibition for Citric Acid Enterprises without Achievement of Discharge Standard
Table I-1-2-29-1 5W1H of Guidance for Promoting Healthy Development of Corn Deep Processing Industry
Table I-1-2-30-1 5W1H of Implementation Framework for Cleaner Production in Fermenting Industry
Table I-1-2-31-1 5W1H of Evaluation Index System (Trial) for Cleaner Production in Fermentation Industry
Table I-1-2-32-1 5W1H of Integrated Wastewater Discharge Standard
Table I-1-2-33-1 5W1H of Air Pollutants Emission Standard for Coal-Burning, Oil-Burning and Gas-Fired Boiler
Table I-1-2-34-1 5W1H of Hygienic Management Measures for Food Nutritive Fortifier
Table I-1-2-35-1 5W1H of Hygienic Standard for Food Additives Manufacturer
Table I-1-2-36-1 5W1H of Integrated Emission Standard of Air Pollutants
Table I-1-2-36-2 Pollutant emission limit for current air pollutant sources
Table I-1-2-36-3 Pollutant emission limit for new air pollutant sources
Table I-1-2-37-1 5W1H of Discharge Standards of Water Pollutants for Pharmaceutical Industry With Extraction Production
Table I-1-2-37-2 Limited value of water pollutants discharged
Table I-1-2-37-3 Limited value of water pollutants discharged
Table I-1-2-37-4 Limited value of water pollutants discharged with advanced control technique
Table I-1-2-38-1 5W1H of Discharge Standards of Water Pollutants for Pharmaceutical Industry With Chemical Synthesis Production
Table I-1-2-38-2 Limited value of water pollutants discharged
Table I-1-2-38-3 Limited value of water pollutants discharged
Table I-1-2-38-4 Limited value of water pollutants discharged with advanced control technique
Table I-1-2-38-5 Unit production discharge standard for pharmaceutical enterprises with Chemical Synthesis production
Table I-2-1 National and local integrated wastewater discharge standards (mg/L)
Table I-2-2 National and local highest wastewater discharge volume (m3/t product)
Table I-2-1-1-1 Shanghai Regulations
Table I-2-1-1-2 Jiangsu Regulations
Table I-2-1-1-3 Zhejiang Regulations
Table I-2-1-2-1 Guangdong Regulations
Table I-2-1-3-1 Beijing Regulations
Table I-2-1-3-2 Hebei Regulations
Table I-2-1-3-3 Tianjin Regulations
Table I-2-1-3-4 Shanxi Regulations
Table I-2-1-4-1 Anhui regulations
Table I-2-1-4-2 Henan regulations
Table I-2-1-4-3 Hubei regulations
Table I-2-1-4-4 Hunan regulations
Table I-2-1-5-1 Sichuan regulations
Table I-2-1-5-2 Shaanxi regulations
Table I-2-1-5-3 Qinghai regulations
Table I-2-1-6-1 Shandong regulations
Table I-2-1-7-1 Ningxia regulations
Table I-2-1-8-1 Liaoning Regulations
Table I-2-1-9-1 Jilin Regulations
Table I-2-1-10-1 Heilongjiang Regulations
Table I-2-1-11-1 Inner Mongolia Regulations
Table I-2-2-1 Implementation dynamics of environmental regulations in each region
Table I-2-2-2 Penalty and promotion cases by region
Table I-3-1-1 Durability of regulations
Table I-3-2-1 Regulation may be modified in the following several years and the reason
Table I-3-2-2 Initiation date of consultative paper regulations
Table I-4-1 Regulation may be modified or issued in the following five years
Table I-5-1 Scoring standard for regulations’ influence on target technologies
Table I-5-2 Influence assessment of regulation on four technologies
Table I-5-3 Explanation of regulation’s influence on Fermentation
Table I-5-4 Explanation of regulation’s influence on Enzyme conversion
Table I-5-5 Explanation of regulation’s influence on chemical synthesis
Table I-5-6 Explanation of regulation’s influence on Extraction
Table I-6-1 Influence of the regulations on each industry
Table I-6-2 Influence of each key regulation on each industry
Table I-7-1 Issue date and reason of industry regulations
Table I-7-2 MSG industry restructuring history
Table II-3-1 Comparison of water-soluble dietary fiber technique between Baolingbao Biology and other domestic producers
Table II-3-2 Comparison of fructo-oligosaccharide technique between Baolingbao Biology and other domestic producers

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure Geographic distribution of key rivers and lakes in China
Figure I-1-1-1 Hierarchical structure of environmental protection law system
Figure I-6-1 Input in controlling industrial pollution in China, 2004~2008
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