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Global LNG Market 2016

October 2016 | 250 pages | ID: G4D1ADDFF4EEN
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Liquefied natural gas or LNG is natural gas that has been processed to remove either valuable components e.g. helium, or those impurities that could cause difficulty downstream. LNG offers an energy density comparable to petrol and diesel fuels and produces less pollution, but its relatively high cost of production and the need to store it in expensive cryogenic tanks have prevented its widespread use in commercial applications.

According to the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), the U.S. could face a gap in supply of natural gas of about five trillion cubic feet (Tcf) by 2020. Consequently, increased imports of natural gas will be required to meet future shortfalls. Canada may not be able to sustain increasing volumes of exports to the U.S. due to Canada’s own increasing demand for natural gas. The EIA expects LNG imports to reach 0.8 Tcf a year by 2020, or about three percent of our total consumption. The demand for LNG is expected to grow. To make LNG available for use in the U.S., energy companies must invest in the LNG value chain, which is a number of different operations that are highly linked and dependent upon one another. Natural gas can be economically produced and delivered to the U.S. as LNG in a price range of about $2.50 - $3.50 per million Btu (MMBtu) at Henry Hub in Louisiana, depending largely on shipping cost.

The emergence of LNG is not only due to its efficiency and eco-friendliness, but also due to economical reasons. LNG is quite competitive vis-?-vis alternative sources such as naphtha, crude and coal and is also competitive vis-?-vis piped gas if transported over distances exceeding 2000 km.

With projected decreases in conventional onshore and offshore natural gas production and the projected decline in natural gas imports through to 2025, growth in U.S. and global natural gas supplies will depend on non-conventional domestic production, natural gas imports, and imports of LNG.

With the rise in commercial activity of LNG, Aruvian Research brings you a report focusing on the Global LNG Market 2016. The report covers basic topics such as what is LNG to more in depth ones such as the economics of LNG, barriers to the growth of LNG, growth drivers, major players, major LNG terminals, etc.


B.1 What is LNG?
B.2 Background of LNG
B.3 Does the U.S. Need LNG?
B.4 Uses of LNG
B.5 Is LNG a Competitive Source of Natural Gas?
B.6 LNG, GTL, and CNG
B.7 Impact of Unconventional Gas


C.1 Industry Overview
C.2 Global LNG Demand
C.3 Global Liquefaction Capacity
C.4 Supply & Demand Scenario
C.5 Qatar and the Moratorium on Production
C.6 Iran’s Gas Reserves versus Production
C.7 China’s Growing Requirement for LNG
C.8 LNG Boom Expected in Australia
C.9 LNG Trade
C.9.1 LNG Exports
C.9.2 LNG Imports
C.9.3 Inter-basin Trade Flows
C.9.4 LNG Spot Market
C.10 LNG Prices
C.11 Emerging LNG Markets
C.12 Pipeline Competition
C.13 Industry Forecast


D.1 Primary Liquefaction Technologies
D.2 Floating Liquefaction


E.1 Industry Trends
E.2 Price Trends
E.3 Trends in LNG Contracts
E.4 Trends in Project Financing
E.5 Gas Quality


F.1 Introduction
F.2 Exploration and Production
F.3 Liquefaction
F.4 Shipping
F.5 Storage
F.6 Distribution


G.1 Supply-Demand Scenario of Natural Gas
G.2 Economic Drivers
G.3 Environmental Drivers
G.4 Challenges with Reserves
G.5 Industry Globalization
G.6 Emergence of Offshore East Africa as New LNG Market


H.1 Doubts on Australian LNG Stall
H.2 Environmental Pressures
H.3 High Associated Costs
H.4 Problems with Shipping
H.5 Lack of Terminal Capacity
H.6 Safety Concerns
H.7 High BTU Content
H.8 Political Unrest, Piracy and Terrorism
H.9 Issues with Strait of Hormuz


I.1 Overview
I.2 Capacity of LNG Receiving Terminals
I.3 LNG Terminal Capacity by Country & Region


J.1 Overview
J.2 LNG Carrier Vessel Types
J.3 Vessel Types
J.4 Capacity & Age of LNG Carriers
J.5 LNG Charter Market
J.6 Newbuild Vessel Orders


K.1 Air Products & Chemicals, Inc.
K.1.1 Corporate Profile
K.1.2 Business Segment Analysis
K.1.3 SWOT Analysis
K.2 BG Group Plc
K.2.1 Corporate Profile
K.2.2 Business Segment Analysis
K.2.3 SWOT Analysis
K.3 BP Plc
K.3.1 Corporate Profile
K.3.2 Business Segment Analysis
K.3.3 SWOT Analysis
K.4 Cheniere Energy, Inc
K.4.1 Corporate Profile
K.4.2 Business Segment Analysis
K.4.3 SWOT Analysis
K.5 Chevron Corporation
K.5.1 Corporate Profile
K.5.2 Business Segment Analysis
K.5.3 SWOT Analysis
K.6 ConocoPhillips
K.6.1 Corporate Profile
K.6.2 Business Segment Analysis
K.6.3 SWOT Analysis
K.7 Exxon Mobil Corporation
K.7.1 Corporate Profile
K.7.2 Business Segment Analysis
K.7.3 SWOT Analysis
K.8 Gazprom OAO
K.8.1 Corporate Profile
K.8.2 Business Segment Analysis
K.8.3 SWOT Analysis
K.9 Inpex Corporation
K.9.1 Corporate Profile
K.9.2 Business Segment Analysis
K.9.3 SWOT Analysis
K.10 Petronas
K.10.1 Corporate Profile
K.10.2 Business Segment Analysis
K.10.3 SWOT Analysis
K.11 Repsol SA
K.11.1 Corporate Profile
K.11.2 Business Segment Analysis
K.11.3 SWOT Analysis
K.12 Royal Dutch Shell Plc
K.12.1 Corporate Profile
K.12.2 Business Segment Analysis
K.12.3 SWOT Analysis
K.13 Sonatrach SPA
K.13.1 Corporate Profile
K.13.2 Business Segment Analysis
K.13.3 SWOT Analysis
K.14 Total SA
K.14.1 Corporate Profile
K.14.2 Business Segment Analysis
K.14.3 SWOT Analysis
K.15 Woodside Petroleum Limited
K.15.1 Corporate Profile
K.15.2 Business Segment Analysis
K.15.3 SWOT Analysis
K.16 Qatar Petroleum
K.17 Petroleos de Venezuela SA


L.1 Propane-Air Storage vs. LNG Storage
L.2 Figures & Tables



Figure 1: U.S. LNG Facilities as of June 2016
Figure 2: LNG Transportation Costs
Figure 3: US Natural Gas Production
Figure 4: Percentage of Shale Gas Share in US Gas Production
Figure 5: Forecast for US LNG Imports
Figure 6: US LNG Imports vs. US Regasification Capacity
Figure 7: Net Trade of the US with Canada & Mexico
Figure 8: LNG Imports by Mexico
Figure 9: Prices of Natural Gas in US, Japan, UK & Germany
Figure 10: Gas Prices in Europe - Spot Prices vs. Oil-linked
Figure 11: Global Demand of LNG (in Million Tons per Year), 2000-2030
Figure 12: Global Liquefaction Capacity Build Out (in Million Tons per Annum), 1992-2020
Figure 13: Global LNG Industry Number of Trains Commissioned vs Average Train Capacity, 1966-2020
Figure 14: LNG Development Pipelines in Australia & Papua New Guinea
Figure 15: Trade Volumes of LNG (In MTPA), 1993-2015
Figure 16: Global LNG Exports by Country in 2015 (in MTPA) and Increase from 2014
Figure 17: Global LNG Exports by Country (%), 1993-2015
Figure 18: Global LNG Exports by Region (in MTPA), 1993-2015
Figure 19: Global LNG Re-Exports by Country (in MTPA), 2007-2015
Figure 20: Global LNG Imports by Country in 2015 (in MTPA) and Increase from 2014
Figure 21: Global Gas Trade (in BCM), 2003-2015
Figure 22: Global LNG Industry Inter-basin Trade Flows (in Percentage Share), 1966-2015
Figure 23: Global LNG Industry Inter-basin Trade comparing 2003 and 2015 Performance
Figure 24: Spot LNG Trade (by Volume) & Share of Total of LNG Trade, 2003-2013
Figure 25: Number of Spot Cargoes Traded & Exporters & Importers of Spot LNG
Figure 26: Global LNG Industry Monthly Average Gas Prices by Region (in USD/mmBtu), 2010-2015
Figure 27: Imports of LNG to Emerging Markets
Figure 28: Utilization Rates of LNG Terminals by Country, 2012 & 2013
Figure 29: Future Capacity Growth by Country
Figure 30: LNG Demand in 2025
Figure 31: Global Liquefaction Capacity by Technology Type, 2015
Figure 32: Floating Liquefaction Capacity (Proposed & Under Construction), by Country
Figure 33: Sources of LNG to the US (%)
Figure 34: Upper Limits of WI Ranges in European LNG Importing Countries & Typical WI of LNG by Source
Figure 35: Single Mixed Refrigerant (SMR) Process
Figure 36: Propane Pre-Cooled Mixed-Refrigerant (PPMR) Process
Figure 37: Cascade Process
Figure 38: Flow of U.S. Natural Gas Imports/Exports
Figure 39: Strait of Hormuz – Primary LNG Transport Route
Figure 40: LNG Receiving Terminals Start Ups, 2003-2018
Figure 41: Capacity of Receiving Terminals Worldwide, 2003-2018
Figure 42: Global LNG Receiving Capacity (in MTPA), Q1 2015
Figure 43: Capacity of Global LNG Receiving Terminals (in MTPA), 2000-2020
Figure 44: Historical & Expected Start-ups of LNG Receiving Terminals Worldwide, 1980-2020
Figure 45: Send-out Capacity of LNG Terminals Worldwide on Yearly Basis, 2015 & 2020
Figure 46: Global LNG Regasification Capacity by Country (in MTPA), 2015
Figure 47: Global Regasification Capacity by Region (%), 2015
Figure 48: Import Capacity at Global LNG Receiving Terminals by Countries, 2015 & 2020
Figure 49: Global LNG Carrier Fleet, 1969-2013
Figure 50: Global LNG Carrier Fleet by Containment System (%), at end of 2015
Figure 51: Capacity of the Global LNG Fleet by Number of Carriers and Percentage of Total, 2015
Figure 52: Global LNG Carrier Fleet by Age, 2015
Figure 53: LNG Charter Rates & Conventional New build Orders
Figure 54: Order Book for Newbuild Vessels & LNG Fleet, 2015
Figure 55: World Natural Gas Supply, 2014
Figure 56: Global LNG Pricing by Regions
Figure 57: US LNG Facilities
Figure 58: Typical Natural Gas Composition
Figure 59: Typical LNG Composition
Figure 60: LNG Value Chain
Figure 61: LNG Fleet Containment System
Figure 62: Decline in LNG Costs (Does not include Feedstock Prices)
Figure 63: LNG Capacity under Construction by Country (Cumulative Volume Additions), 2014-2020
Figure 64: LNG Capacity under Construction by Region (Cumulative Volume Additions), 2014-2020
Figure 65: LNG Demand Supply Balance 2001 – 2030


Table 1: Regional Distribution of LNG Storage
Table 2: Top 10 NGV Countries
Table 3: Economic Comparison of GTL & LNG Projects
Table 4: Comparison of CNG & LNG
Table 5: Global LNG Industry Trade between Basins (in MT), 2015
Table 6: Comparative LNG Economics for Greenfield Facilities ($/MCF)
Table 7: Representative LNG Shipping Rates to U.S. ($/MMbtu)
Table 8: LNG Composition (Mole Percent)
Table 9: Global LNG Trade Variations

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