Electric Vehicle Traction Batteries 2012-2022

Date: March 1, 2012
Pages: 341
US$ 3,995.00
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Publisher: IDTechEx Ltd
Report type: Strategic Report
Delivery: E-mail Delivery (PDF), Hard Copy Mail Delivery

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Electric Vehicle Traction Batteries 2012-2022
This comprehensive report has detailed assessments and forecasts for all the sectors using and likely to use traction batteries. There are chapters on heavy industrial, light industrial/commercial, mobility for the disabled, two wheel and allied, pure electric cars, hybrid cars, golf cars, military, marine and other. The profusion of pictures, diagrams and tables pulls the subject together to give an independent view of the future ten years. Unit sales, unit prices and total market value are forecast for each sector for 2012-2022. The replacement market is quantified and ten year technology trends by sector are in there too, with a view on winning and losing technologies and companies.

This is the essential reference book for those who are anywhere in the hybrid and pure electric vehicle value chain. Those making materials, cells, battery sets or vehicles, researchers, legislators and market analysts will find it invaluable.

The whole picture

With vehicle traction batteries it is important to look at the whole picture and this report does it for the first time. The rapidly growing market for traction batteries will exceed $55 billion in only ten years. However that spans battery sets up to $500,000 each with great sophistication needed for military, marine and solar aircraft use. Huge numbers of low cost batteries are being used for e-bikes but even here several new technologies are appearing. The largest replacement market is for e-bikes today and the value market for replacement batteries will not be dominated by cars when these batteries last the life of the car - something likely to happen within ten years. The trends are therefore complex and that is why IDTechEx has analysed them with great care.

Vehicle manufacturers are often employing new battery technology first in their forklifts or e-bikes, not cars, yet there is huge progress with car batteries as well - indeed oversupply is probable in this sector at some stage. The mix is changing too. The second largest volume of electric vehicles made in 2010 was mobility aids for the disabled but in ten years time it will be hybrid cars. The market for car traction batteries will be larger than the others but there will only be room for six or so winners in car batteries and other suppliers and users will need to dominate their own niches to achieve enduring growth and profits. Strategy must be decided now.

In this report, researched in 2010 and 2012 and frequently updated, we analyse the successes, the needs, the statistics and the market potential for traction batteries for all the major applications. This has never been done before. It is important to look at the whole picture because traction battery manufacturers typically sell horizontally across many applications and electric vehicle manufacturers increasingly make versions for many applications - heavy industrial, on road, leisure and so on. Indeed, the smarter putative suppliers will choose the sectors that best leverage their strengths rather than join the herd and be obliterated by corporations of up to $100 billion in size enjoying prodigious government support.

1.1. The decade of hybrid vehicles
1.2. Market 2012-2022
1.3. Replacement business
  1.3.1. Replacement market
  1.3.2. Lithium polymer electrolyte now important
  1.3.3. Winning chemistry
  1.3.4. Winning lithium traction battery manufacturers
  1.3.5. Making lithium batteries safe
1.4. Price war
1.5. Massive investments
1.6. Largest sectors
1.7. Market for EV components
1.8. Who is winning in lithium-ion traction batteries - and why
  1.8.1. The needs have radically changed
  1.8.2. It started with cobalt
  1.8.3. Great variety of recipes
  1.8.4. Other factors
  1.8.5. Check with reality
  1.8.6. Lithium winners today and soon
  1.8.7. Reasons for winning
  1.8.8. Winner will be Toyota?
  1.8.9. Lithium polymer electrolyte now important
  1.8.10. Genuinely Solid State Traction Batteries
  1.8.11. Winning chemistry
  1.8.12. Titanate establishes a place for Li-ion anodes
  1.8.13. Laminar structure


2.1. Definitions, scope, history
2.2. The EV value chain
2.3. Pure electric vs hybrid vehicles
2.4. Battery cells, modules, packs
2.5. Construction of battery packs
  2.5.1. Changing factors
  2.5.2. NiMH vs lithium
  2.5.3. Replacement traction battery pack market 2011-2021
  2.5.4. Plug in hybrids take over from mild hybrids
2.6. Pure electric and hybrid converge
  2.6.1. Two options converge
2.7. Fuel cells
2.8. The ideal car traction battery pack
2.9. Traction batteries today
2.10. First generation lithium traction batteries
2.11. Second generation lithium traction batteries
2.12. The future
  2.12.1. Third generation lithium traction batteries
  2.12.2. Trends in energy storage vs battery pack voltage
  2.12.3. Companies wishing to make the new batteries
2.13. How to improve lithium traction batteries
  2.13.1. Basic needs
  2.13.2. Life
  2.13.3. Safety
2.14. USA and Europe play catch up
2.15. Technological leapfrog
2.16. Academic research and small companies
2.17. Industrial leverage
  2.17.1. Major funding can have strange impacts
  2.17.2. Rapid profits for some
  2.17.3. Impediments
2.18. Benefits of EVs
2.19. Traction battery design considerations
2.20. Future evolution of hybrids and pure electric cars
  2.20.1. Specification changes
  2.20.2. Move to high voltage
  2.20.3. Battery performance over time - battery life
  2.20.4. Battery state of charge
  2.20.5. Depth of discharge affects life
  2.20.6. Capacity rating
  2.20.7. Daily depth of discharge
  2.20.8. Charging and discharging rates
2.21. Requirements - hybrids vs pure electric
  2.21.1. Plug in requirements align with pure electric cars
  2.21.2. Hybrids need power and pure electrics need capacity - for now
  2.21.3. Parallel hybrids differ
  2.21.4. Plug in hybrids try to be the best of both worlds
  2.21.5. Watt hours per mile
  2.21.6. Charging rates
  2.21.7. Custom packaging
2.22. Fast charging batteries and infrastructure


3.1. Introduction
3.2. Lithium manganese
3.3. Lithium iron phosphate
3.4. Lithium air and lithium metal
3.5. Lithium sulfur
  3.5.1. Other challenges


4.1. Examples of battery suppliers to this sector
  4.1.1. GE USA
  4.1.2. East Penn Manufacturing Corporation USA
  4.1.3. Furukawa Battery Japan
  4.1.4. Nissan lithium forklift Japan
  4.1.5. Balqon lithium heavy duty vehicles USA
4.2. Listing of manufacturers
4.3. Market size
4.4. Heavy industrial traction battery market forecasts 2011 to 2021


  5.1.1. Sub categories
  5.1.2. Buses
5.2. Examples of battery suppliers to this sector
  5.2.1. A123 Systems
  5.2.2. Axeon UK
  5.2.3. Eaton Corporation USA
  5.2.4. KD Advanced Battery Group Dow USA Kokam Korea
  5.2.5. Lithium Technology Corporation/GAIA USA
  5.2.6. MAGNA STEYR AG & Co KG Austria
  5.2.7. Valence Technologies USA
  5.2.8. Lishen Power Battery China
5.3. Market drivers
  5.3.1. Governments get involved
5.4. Importance of batteries and power trains
  5.4.1. Freightliner and Enova
  5.4.2. China Vehicles Company
  5.4.3. Ford Transit
5.5. EVs for local services
5.6. Airport EVs
5.7. Small people-movers
5.8. Light industrial aids
  5.8.1. Heavy duty on-road trucks become hybrids
5.9. Listing of manufacturers
5.10. Light industrial / commercial traction battery market forecasts 2011-2021


6.1. Examples of battery suppliers to this sector
6.2. The sector with the most compelling and enduring need
6.3. Laws make mobility easier
6.4. Interchina Industry Group China
6.5. Market drivers
  6.5.1. Geographical distribution
  6.5.2. Zhejiang R&P Industry China
6.6. Listing of manufacturers
6.7. Mobility aid traction battery market forecasts 2011 to 2021
  6.7.1. Growth by creating new markets


7.1. Examples of battery suppliers to this sector
  7.1.1. Advanced Battery Technologies (ABAT) China
  7.1.2. Leyden Energy USA
  7.1.3. PowerGenix USA
  7.1.4. ReVolt Technologies Ltd Switzerland
  7.1.5. Toshiba Japan
7.2. Batteries and specifications for two wheelers
  7.2.1. Electric two wheelers prices and performance
  7.2.2. Yamaha lithium Japan
  7.2.3. Eko Vehicles lead acid scooters India
  7.2.4. Honda lithium motorcycle Japan
  7.2.5. Peugeot lithium scooter France
7.3. Hybrid motorcycles
  7.3.1. YikeBike lithium New Zealand
7.4. The big winners in western markets
7.5. Listing of manufacturers
  7.5.1. 70 examples of manufacturers
  7.5.2. China
7.6. Two wheeled and allied traction battery market forecasts 2011 to 2021


8.1. Examples of battery suppliers to this sector
  8.1.1. Change of leader? Ingersoll Rand and Textron USA
  8.1.2. Suzhou Eagle and many others in China
8.2. Listing of manufacturers
8.3. Golf car and caddy traction battery market forecasts 2011 to 2021


9.1. Examples of battery suppliers to this sector
  9.1.1. Automotive Energy Supply Japan
  9.1.2. Panasonic EV Energy, Sanyo Japan
  9.1.3. Blue Energy, Lithium Energy Japan - GS Yuasa Japan with Honda, Mitsubishi
  9.1.4. Bolloré France
  9.1.5. Boston Power
  9.1.6. BYD China
  9.1.7. China BAK in China
  9.1.8. Coda Battery Systems, Yardney USA, Tianjin Lishen China
  9.1.9. Continental Germany and ENAX Japan
  9.1.10. Envia Systems USA
  9.1.11. Hitachi Japan
  9.1.12. IBM and National laboratories USA
  9.1.13. Inci Holding Turkey
  9.1.14. LG Chem Korea with Compact Power
  9.1.15. LiFeBATT Taiwan
  9.1.16. Li-Tec Evonik Industries Germany and Daimler
  9.1.17. Mitsubishi Japan with Sumitomo Japan
  9.1.18. Next Alternative Germany, Micro Bubble Technology Korea
  9.1.19. Planar Energy Devices USA
  9.1.20. Sakti3 USA and General Motors USA
  9.1.21. SB LiMotive Co. Ltd - Samsung Korea with Bosch Germany
  9.1.22. Sony Japan
  9.1.23. Superlattice Power USA
9.2. Rapid increase in number of manufacturers
  9.2.1. Examples of manufacturers
  9.2.2. Recharging points
  9.2.3. Battery changing points
  9.2.4. Can the grid cope?
9.3. Car traction battery market forecasts 2011 to 2021
  9.3.1. Total car traction battery market value 2011 to 2021
  9.3.2. Battery pack market by car type 2012-2022
  9.3.3. Hybrid battery prices
  9.3.4. Replacement car traction battery pack market 2010-2020


10.1. Electricity solely for traction
10.2. Examples of pure EV cars
  10.2.1. Nissan Leaf lithium Japan, UK, USA
  10.2.2. Here come the Chinese - BYD, Brilliance, Geely, Chengfang
  10.2.3. Jianghsu lead acid China
  10.2.4. High performance pure lithium EVs - Tesla USA
  10.2.5. Lightning lithium UK
  10.2.6. Subaru Stella lithium Japan
  10.2.7. REVA lead acid or lithium India
  10.2.8. Club Car lead acid USA
  10.2.9. Tara Tiny lead acid India
  10.2.10. Mitsubishi iMiEV lithium Japan
  10.2.11. Renault Nissan lithium France


11.1. Construction and advantages of hybrids
  11.1.1. Evolution
  11.1.2. Frazer Nash Namir lithium UK
  11.1.3. Chevrolet Volt lithium USA
  11.1.4. Toyota Prius NiMH, lithium Japan
  11.1.5. Fisker Karma lithium USA


12.1. Examples of battery suppliers to this sector
  12.1.1. ABSL UK
  12.1.2. Altair Nanotechnologies (Altairnano) USA
  12.1.3. Electrovaya Canada
  12.1.4. Hummer
  12.1.5. Chrysler
  12.1.6. Saft France, Johnson Controls USA
12.2. Examples of military EVs
  12.2.1. Manned land vehicles.
  12.2.2. Hummer lithium USA / China
  12.2.3. Quantum Technologies lithium USA
  12.2.4. US Army trucks etc - ZAP, Columbia ParCar USA
  12.2.5. Oshkosh Truck Corp USA
  12.2.6. Plug-in trucks - BAE Systems UK
  12.2.7. Electric robot vehicles USA
12.3. In the air
  12.3.1. Disposable surveillance aircraft
  12.3.2. DARPA insects USA
  12.3.3. COM-BAT lithium robot bat USA
  12.3.4. Aerovironment electric aircraft USA
12.4. Examples of military EVs - in the water
  12.4.1. Robot lithium jellyfish USA and Germany
12.5. Manufacturers of military EVs
12.6. Military traction battery market forecasts 2011 to 2021


13.1. Examples of battery suppliers to this sector
  13.1.1. Gavia Iceland
  13.1.2. PolyPlus Battery USA
  13.1.3. ThunderPower USA
13.2. Market segments
  13.2.1. Total market
  13.2.2. Underwater
  13.2.3. On the water
13.3. Commonality with land EVs
13.4. Market drivers
  13.4.1. Pollution laws back electric boats
13.5. Energy harvesting superyacht UK
  13.5.1. Cleaner yachts - Valence, Bénéteau
13.6. Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs)
  13.6.1. Swimmers
13.7. Leisure and tourist submarines USA
13.8. Manufacturers by country and product
  13.8.1. Examples of companies making electric water craft
13.9. Marine traction battery market forecasts 2011 to 2021
  13.9.1. Surface and subsurface boat markets
  13.9.2. AUV


14.1. Market drivers
14.2. Listing of manufacturers by country and product
14.3. Companies in the mobile robot and leisure sector
14.4. Electric aircraft for civil use
  14.4.1. Sion Power USA - Aircraft batteries
  14.4.2. Aircraft - Renault, Piccard
14.5. Other traction battery market forecasts 2011 to 2021

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