The Future Of Biomass: Technology developments, key costs and the future outlook

Date: November 22, 2009
Pages: 134
Price:
US$ 2,875.00
Publisher: Business Insights
Report type: Strategic Report
Delivery: E-mail Delivery (PDF)
ID: F168CF0EF6CEN
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The Future Of Biomass: Technology developments, key costs and the future outlook
Biomass has always been an important source of energy for mankind and today it accounts for 10% of primary energy consumption. Most of this is traditional fuels used for cooking and heating in the developing world. In the developed world until the end of the last century its use was mainly restricted to niche applications such as combined heat and power generation in the wood and paper industries. Today the perception of biomass is changing and it is being recognized once more as a valuable modern fuel that can provide a renewable energy to replace fossil fuel in power generation. As a consequence its use is growing at it is set to become one of the major renewable sources over then next two decades.

Biomass consists of all the plant material on the surface of the earth (and in the seas if algae are included). Almost two thirds of the total is regenerated each year during seasonal growth. The total regenerated is probably equivalent to more than three times total global energy consumption in 2008. Around 3% of this is used each year, mostly in the form of wood.

Key Features of this report
  • Analysis of biomass technologies concepts and components.
  • Clarification of the market for biomass and future growth.
  • Assessment of new renewable energy technology analysis including innovation, infrastructure investment.
  • Insight relating to the most innovative product launches and potential areas of opportunity for manufacturers.
  • Examination of the key technology introductions and innovations.

Scope of this report
  • Achieve a quick and comprehensive understanding of how biomass market trends and infrastructure are influencing the development of the renewable energy market.
  • Realize up to date competitive intelligence through a comprehensive review of biomass technology concepts in the recent electricity infrastructure and renewable energy market.
  • Assess the emerging trends in renewable energy technology – biomass – grid connection and energy distribution.

Key Market Issues
  • Environmental requirements: The growth of carbon dioxide emissions globally are creating a path for lower carbon emitting power generation technologies. Biomass as fuel is carbon neutral since while it releases carbon into the atmosphere when burnt, the growth of new biomass absorbs the same amount carbon from the atmosphere. As a consequence it offers a valuable renewable source of energy.
  • Legislative issues: The use of biomass as an energy source raises a number of environmental and legislative issues. One of the most difficult is that of maintaining a balance between land for the production of energy crops and land for producing food. Additional questions arise when waste materials are used to produce energy. Agricultural wastes are a valuable fuel source but part of each crop must be returned to the land if soil quality is not to deteriorate. A significant part of municipal waste can be burnt too but some of it is better recycled. Additionally, the combustion of biomass produces a number of potential pollutants in addition to releasing carbon dioxide and these must normally be controlled.

Key findings from this report

1. In 2005 biomass provided around 1.3% of total global electricity production. By 2050 this could rise to between 3.4% and 5.8% of total electricity production.

2. By definition, biomass comprises all the plant life on the surface of the earth. In its 2001 Survey of Energy Resources, the World Energy Council put the total biomass on the surface of the earth at 220bn oven dry tonnes, equivalent to 4,500EJ of energy. This definition may require modifying if algae become a major source of biomass energy since algae grow in water.

3. Actual usage today is around 50EJ, or 10% of the estimated 500EJ of total global energy consumption in 2008. This is roughly 77% of the total renewable contribution (including hydropower) to primary energy consumption.

Key questions answered

1. What are the drivers shaping and influencing new technology development in the electricity industry?
2. How will renewable energy technologies be connected and integrated into the existing grid network?
3. What is the biomass power generation system going to cost?
4. What are the components of the biomass power generation system?
5. Which biomass types will be the winners and which the losers?
The Future of Biomass
Executive summary
Introduction
Biomass resources
Energy crops
Biomass power generation technologies
Environmental and legislative issues
The economics of biomass for electricity generation
The future of biomass power generation

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION

Summary
Biomass development
The structure of the report

CHAPTER 2 BIOMASS RESOURCES

Introduction
The size of the resource
Types of biomass resource
Residues
Fuelwood
Energy crops
Regional resources

CHAPTER 3 ENERGY CROPS

Introduction
Types of energy crop
Energy crop infrastructure
Energy crop yields

CHAPTER 4 BIOMASS POWER GENERATION TECHNOLOGIES

Introduction
Direct firing of biomass
Stoker combustors
Suspension combustion
Fluidized bed combustors
Steam cycle improvements
Co-firing
Direct firing fuel considerations
Fuel handling
Gasification
Fixed bed gasifiers
Fluidized bed gasifiers
Power production using biomass gasification
Modular systems
Anaerobic fermentation of biomass
Biomass digesters

CHAPTER 5 ENVIRONMENTAL AND LEGISLATIVE ISSUES

Introduction
The carbon cycle and atmospheric warming
Biomass and carbon dioxide
Atmospheric emissions other than carbon dioxide
Life cycle assessment
Energy crops
Waste fuel
Agricultural wastes
Forestry residues
Urban waste
Legislative issues
Issues affecting biomass energy crops

CHAPTER 6 THE ECONOMICS OF BIOMASS FOR ELECTRICITY GENERATION

Introduction
Installed costs of biomass generating plants
Fuel costs
Cost of electricity

CHAPTER 7 FUTURE OUTLOOK

Introduction
Comparative costs of energy from biomass
Financial incentives and deterrents
Global biomass markets
Biomass growth and targets
Biomass prospects
Index

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 2.1: Breakdown of biomass contribution to primary energy consumption (%)
Figure 2.2: Bagasse annual potential availability (thousand tonnes), 2007
Figure 2.3: Global wood fuel consumption (PJ), 2007
Figure 2.4: Current and predicted EU biomass resources (Mtoe/y)
Figure 2.5: Current and potential US biomass resources (Million dry tonnes/y), 2005
Figure 2.6: Potential power generation from biomass among ASEAN countries (MW)
Figure 2.7: Breakdown of currently available biomass in China by type (%)
Figure 2.8: Maximum regional bioenergy production potentials (EJ/y)
Figure 4.9: Typical biomass combustion technology power generation efficiencies (%)
Figure 4.10: Typical wood gas composition (%)
Figure 4.11: Biogas energy content (MJ/m3)
Figure 4.12: Power generation systems for biomass (%)
Figure 5.13: Atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations (ppm)
Figure 6.14: Estimated biomass generation installed costs in California ($/kW), 2007
Figure 6.15: Energy content of biomass fuels (MJ/kg)
Figure 6.16: Energy crop costs ($/tonne), 2007
Figure 6.17: Energy crop costs ($/tonne), 2007
Figure 6.18: UK wood fuel power costs (?/MWh), 2008
Figure 6.19: Estimated biomass generation costs in California ($/MWh), 2007
Figure 7.20: Levelized cost of electricity from power plants ($/MWh), 2009
Figure 7.21: Global biomass-based electricity production (TWh), 2007
Figure 7.22: Global biomass production by country (TWh), 2007
Figure 7.23: Biomass use in Europe (ktoe/%), 2007
Figure 7.24: US biomass-based electricity production (TWh), 2009
Figure 7.25: EU renewable energy roadmap targets (TWh), 2006-2020

LIST OF TABLES

Table 2.1: Breakdown of biomass contribution to primary energy consumption (%)
Table 2.2: Potential long term biomass supply by category, (EJ), 2000
Table 2.3: Bagasse annual potential availability (thousand tonnes), 2007
Table 2.4: Global wood fuel consumption (PJ), 2007
Table 2.5: Current and predicted EU biomass resources (Mtoe/y)
Table 2.6: Current and potential US biomass resources (Million dry tonnes/y), 2005
Table 2.7: Potential power generation from biomass among ASEAN countries (MW)
Table 2.8: Breakdown of currently available biomass in China by type (%)
Table 2.9: Maximum regional bioenergy production potentials (EJ/y)
Table 3.10: Properties of miscanthus and switchgrass as combustion fuels
Table 3.11: Typical energy crop yields
Table 4.12: Typical biomass combustion technology power generation efficiencies (%)
Table 4.13: Typical wood gas composition (%)
Table 4.14: Biogas energy content (MJ/m3)
Table 4.15: Power generation systems for biomass
Table 5.16: Atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations (ppm), 1700-2100
Table 5.17: Typical atmospheric emissions from combustion power plants (kg/MWh)
Table 5.18: Power plant total energy balance (kJ/kWh)
Table 6.19: Installed cost of biomass CHP and power-only
Table 6.20: Estimated biomass generation costs in California, 2007
Table 6.21: Energy content of biomass fuels (MJ/kg)
Table 6.22: Energy crop costs ($/tonne), 2007
Table 6.23: Energy crop costs ($/tonne), 2007
Table 6.24: UK wood fuel costs, 2008
Table 6.25: Cost of electricity from biomass CHP and power only installations
Table 6.26: Estimated biomass generation costs in California
Table 7.27: IEA global power generation scenarios (TWh), 2008
Table 7.28: The cost of electricity from power plants ($/MWh), 2009
Table 7.29: Global biomass-based electricity production (TWh), 2007
Table 7.30: Global biomass production by country (TWh), 2007
Table 7.31: Biomass use in Europe (ktoe/%), 2007
Table 7.32: US biomass-based electricity production (TWh), 2009
Table 7.33: EU renewable energy roadmap targets (TWh), 2006-2020
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