Renewable Integration and Balancing Issues: Energy storage, structural costs, grid integration, operational considerations, and the future outlook

Date: July 22, 2010
Pages: 110
Price:
US$ 2,875.00
Publisher: Business Insights
Report type: Strategic Report
Delivery: E-mail Delivery (PDF)
ID: R7F2138BA77EN
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Renewable Integration and Balancing Issues: Energy storage, structural costs, grid integration, operational considerations, and the future outlook
The last decade has seen a rapid growth in the generation of electric power from renewable sources. This growth has been the result of several stimuli but the most potent has been global warming and a consequent move to reduce emissions of CO2 into the atmosphere. While international agreement on action to combat global warming remains elusive, many countries and regions are pursuing their own renewable policies with the result that all types of renewable generating technology have benefited.

In 2004, according to Renewable Energy Policy Network for the 21st Century the total global renewable capacity was 160GW. This rose to 182GW in 2005, 207GW in 2006, 240GW in 2007 and 280GW in 2008. At the end of 2008 large hydropower capacity was 860GW, making a total of 1,140GW.

Hydropower aside, much of this new renewable capacity is from wind turbines which were responsible for 121GW of the 2008 total. Small hydropower added another 85GW, biomass 50-60GW and solar power up to 14GW. With the exception of biomass power generation all these renewable sources provide intermittent generation and this, together with the remote location of some renewable resources, has created a range of integration problems for system operators.

These problems fall into two principal categories, structural problems and balancing problems. The structural problems are associated with the physical changes necessary to accommodate new renewable capacity on a grid. These changes may involve the addition of new transmission lines in order to bring wind power from a remote but resource-rich region to the centers of demand or it might involve both additional stability measures and transmission capacity being added to an existing grid structure to cope with differing power flows arising from the injection of renewably-generated electric power.

Key features of this report
  • Analysis of key renewable technologies concepts and components.
  • Assessment of structural costs and grid integration.
  • Insight relating to balancing issues, intermittency, power supply and demand
  • Examination of the key grid technology introductions and innovations.
  • Identification of the key trends shaping the market, as well as an evaluation of emerging trends that will drive innovation moving forward.
Scope of this report
  • Realize up to date competitive intelligence through a comprehensive review of grid integration technologies concepts in electricity power generation markets.
  • Assess the emerging trends in renewable technologies – solar, onshore and offshore wind, solar photovoltaic and solar thermal, biomass, geothermal and hydropower.
  • Identify which key trends will offer the greatest growth potential and learn which technology trends are likely to allow greater market impact.
  • Compare how manufacturers are developing new grid integration and energy storage technologies.
  • Quantify costs of renewable integration technologies, with comparisons against other forms of power generation technology, structural costs, and cost of electricity.
Key Market Issues
  • Key renewable technologies and their characteristics: - There are six principal types of renewable generation in use today, wind power, solar power, geothermal power, marine power, hydropower and biomass power generation. Each has different characteristics which influence the ease with which it can be integrated into a traditional grid system.
  • Structural costs and grid integration: - Many renewable resources are located at sites remote from such existing grids which will have to be extended and adapted to accommodate them. This is the main source of structural costs associated with renewable generation. An adapted grid must also take account of the fact that renewable generation based on intermittent sources of power do not produce electricity the whole time, a factor which may influence capacity planning for new transmission lines.
  • Balancing issues and other operational considerations: - The addition of intermittent renewable generation to a transmission and distribution grid affects grid security and stability in a number of ways. The most important of these arises because of the both intermittent and unpredictable nature of some renewable resources of which the most salient is wind power. The system operator's task is to maintain the balance between supply and demand, generation and load. Load is variable and to a degree unpredictable so the grid already has strategies to cope with such situations.
  • Energy storage: - One of the most effective methods of dealing with the problems associated with integration of intermittent renewable generating capacity into a grid is by adding energy storage. The most widely used form today is pumped storage hydropower and this is the only type for which a significant and widespread capacity exists. Other technologies include Compressed air energy storage, Battery energy storage, Flywheels, Hydrogen storage. Superconducting coils can also provide grid storage and support services. An additional alternative that might become important in the future is the plug-in electric vehicle.
Key findings from this report
  • In 2008, the total global renewable non-hydropower capacity was 280GW. At the end of 2008 large hydropower capacity was 860GW, making a total of 1,140GW.
  • Estimates in the Netherlands for the connection of offshore capacity put the cost at between €60/kW and €110/kW.
  • A two-day ahead forecast should be able to predict wind output to a root mean square error (RMSE) of less than 10% (normalized to the installed capacity).
  • For 10% wind penetration the overall wind integration balancing cost is between US$1.3/MWh and US$1.4/MWh
  • With 20% wind penetration, the balancing cost in Norway and Sweden was estimated to be €0.50/MWh and €0.66/MWh respectively.
Key questions answered
  • What are the drivers shaping and influencing renewable technology grid integration in the electricity industry?
  • What are the balancing requirements of the various renewable technologies?
  • What is renewable grid integration technology going to cost?
  • Which renewable technologies will be the winners and which the losers in terms power generated, cost and viability?
  • Which energy storage technology types are likely to find favor with manufacturers moving forward?
  • Which ancillary services are gaining in popularity and why?
Executive summary
Introduction
Key renewable technologies and their characteristics
Structural costs and grid integration
Balancing issues and other operational considerations
Energy storage
Intelligent grid solutions to renewable integration
Renewable integration costs and prospects

CHAPTER 1 AN INTRODUCTION TO RENEWABLE INTEGRATION

Summary
Introduction
The structure of the report

CHAPTER 2 KEY RENEWABLES AND THEIR CHARACTERISTICS

Summary
Introduction
Hydropower
Wind power
Solar power
Biomass
Geothermal power
Marine power

CHAPTER 3 STRUCTURAL COSTS AND GRID INTEGRATION

Summary
Introduction
Grid extension, grid reinforcement and structural costs
Capacity factor and capacity credit
Designing renewable plants to meet grid criteria

CHAPTER 4 BALANCING ISSUES AND OTHER OPERATIONAL CONSIDERATIONS

Summary
Introduction
Maintaining a system in balance
Renewable scheduling
Renewable intermittency and load variability
Output and load forecasting
Balancing
Balancing costs

CHAPTER 5 ENERGY STORAGE

Summary
Introduction
Types of energy storage
Using hydropower to mitigate renewable variability
The principal energy storage technologies
Pumped storage hydropower
Compressed air energy storage
Battery energy storage
Flywheels
Capacitors
Superconducting magnetic energy storage
Hydrogen storage
Plug-in electric vehicles
Cost benefits of energy storage

CHAPTER 6 INTELLIGENT GRID SOLUTIONS TO RENEWABLE INTEGRATION

Summary
Introduction
Distributed solar generation
Micro grids
Virtual power plants
The future for the intelligent grid

CHAPTER 7 RENEWABLE INTEGRATION; COSTS AND PROSPECTS

Summary
Introduction
Renewable penetration levels
Integration costs
Renewable integration: the prospects
References

TABLE OF FIGURES

Figure 1: Cumulative global renewable generating capacity (excluding large hydropower) (GW), 2009
Figure 2: Global hydropower generating capacity, 2009
Figure 3: Cumulative annual global wind power capacity, (MW)
Figure 4: Cumulative annual global solar cell capacity (MW), 2009
Figure 5: Global solar thermal capacity (MW), 2009
Figure 6: Global biomass capacity (MW), 2009
Figure 7: Global geothermal generating capacity (MW), 2008
Figure 8: Provisional predictions for eastern US grid expansion to achieve 20% wind penetration by 2024, 2008
Figure 9: European wind structural costs (€/kW), 2009
Figure 10: Typical power plant capacity factors (%), 2009
Figure 11: Expected accuracy for wind output predictions in Germany, 2009
Figure 12: Load and wind error aggregation (RMSE as % of total error over one year period), 2009
Figure 13: Variation in wind balancing cost with wind penetration (€/MWh), 2009
Figure 14: Value of energy storage for different grid services (US$/kW), 2007
Figure 15: Balancing costs for 20% grid wind penetration with energy storage (€/MWh), 2009
Figure 16: Scenarios for installing solar pV in Japan (GW), 2009
Figure 17: Actual EU wind penetration levels (%), 2007
Figure 18: Average wholesale electricity prices in the US (US$/MWh), 2007

TABLE OF TABLES

Table 1: Cumulative global renewable generating capacity (excluding large hydropower) (GW), 2009
Table 2: Estimated global renewable generating capacity by type (MW), 2009
Table 3: Global hydropower generating capacity, 2009
Table 4: Cumulative annual global wind power capacity, (MW)
Table 5: Cumulative annual global solar cell capacity (MW), 2009
Table 6: Global solar thermal capacity (MW), 2009
Table 7: Global biomass capacity (MW), 2009
Table 8: Global geothermal generating capacity (MW), 2008
Table 9: Marine generating capacities (MW), 2009
Table 10: JCSP08 scenario costs, 2009
Table 11: Provisional predictions for eastern US grid expansion to achieve 20% wind penetration by 2024, 2008
Table 12: Transmission cost of wind in the US, 2009
Table 13: European wind structural costs (€/kW), 2009
Table 14: Typical power plant capacity factors (%), 2009
Table 15: California renewable energy ELCC figures (%), 2009
Table 16: Spinning reserve required for Nebraska and SPP with 10% wind penetration, 2009
Table 17: Operating and regulating requirements for CAISO for 20% renewable penetration, 2010
Table 18: Expected accuracy for wind output predictions in Germany, 2009
Table 19: Load and wind error aggregation (RMSE as % of total error over one year period), 2009
Table 20: Hour-ahead forecast errors in California in 2006 (MW)
Table 21: NPA wind integration scenarios, 2009
Table 22: Variation in wind balancing cost with wind penetration (€/MWh), 2009
Table 23: Effects of wind penetration in New Zealand, 2009
Table 24: Typical characteristics of energy storage technologies, 2009
Table 25: Value of energy storage for different grid services (US$/kW), 2007
Table 26: Balancing costs for 20% grid wind penetration with energy storage (€/MWh), 2009
Table 27: Scenarios for installing solar pV in Japan (GW), 2009
Table 28: Intelligent grid concepts, 2009
Table 29: Actual EU wind penetration levels (%), 2007
Table 30: Wind integration structural costs, 2009
Table 31: Wind balancing costs, 2009
Table 32: Renewable integration costs, 2009
Table 33: Average wholesale electricity prices in the US (US$/MWh), 2007
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