Carbon Management in Emerging Economies:New mechanisms for managing carbon dioxide emissions

Date: March 22, 2010
Pages: 174
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US$ 2,875.00
Publisher: Business Insights
Report type: Strategic Report
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ID: CC86E4133C8EN
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Carbon Management in Emerging Economies:New mechanisms for managing carbon dioxide emissions
Carbon management is now a major focus of environmental initiatives. Although carbon dioxide is not the only greenhouse gas, it is the most common and therefore at the centre of attempts to reduce the rate of growth of anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases and eventually to cause these emissions to fall.

Carbon management is a controversial area, involving politicians, public servants, social and physical scientists, activists, businesses and many others. The controversies include:
  • Whether carbon dioxide is a cause or a consequence of global warming or both
  • Whether global warming is a fact – depending on the time period analysed
  • Whether particular initiatives or mechanisms for carbon reduction (such as carbon trading) work (whether scientifically, technologically or in terms of incentives)
  • Whether they have desirable or undesirable other consequences,
This report abstracts from these and other controversies. It focuses on the extent to which emerging economies are involved in innovative and/or leading edge practices in carbon management. So it focuses on questions such as whether a particular initiative works to reduce carbon emissions, whether it has known or suspected adverse consequences in other areas, whether environmental, economic or other; whether the approach to funding it creates problems; whether the initiative may lead to diversion of energy from other initiatives; and whether the initiatives taken together are in some sense enough for the emerging economy in question.
Key features of this report
  • A review of the principles of carbon management
  • An examination of carbon trading and the working of carbon markets
  • Comprehensive and up-to-date data on CO2 emissions for emerging nations, broken out by fuel type
  • Insights on the principlal initiatives taken by nation to reduce CO2 emissions
  • Examination of the key technology introductions and innovations.
  • Implications for the future
Scope of this report
  • Achieve a quick and comprehensive understanding of the various options and models available for reducing carbon emissions
  • Definitive source work, including the most up to date data on carbon emissions by emerging nation
  • An overview of trends and initiatives in reduction of carbon emissions, both worldwide and by emerging nation
  • Comparison of initiatives by nation: which countries are making the greatest progress in dealing with carbon emissions; which are struggling
Key Market Issues
  • Core Issue: Different paths to managing CO2 emissions require different degrees of participation by industry, consumers and governments. The future of carbon management is still uncertain, due to lack of international consensus on how best to manage efficiency and equity issues, and the lack of consensus about the continuation of global warming.
  • Alternative approaches: Various initiatives are used to greater or lesser extent, including:
    • Improved carbon management
    • The Clean Development Mechanism: an important stimulus for carbon reduction initiatives, but high cost and bureaucratic
    • Carbon trading: the cap and trade approach depends for its success on realistic caps
    • Taxation, subsidies and regulation
    • Innovation
  • Approaches vary by location: Most African countries have low carbon emissions. A few – Libya, Algeria, Nigeria and Ghana – have significant oil reserves, and so tend to focus their carbon management on reduction of flaring and other oil and gas-related projects. Access to energy is Africa’s main problem.
Key findings from this report
  • The carbon management situation in emerging economies has produced a mixed picture, with two giants – China and India – focused on carbon management, making significant improvements in some area, but with some substantial gaps.
  • The carbon market looks like it will continue to grow very rapidly, once the recession is over, leading to greatly increased demand for auditing capability – and a risk that there will be a worldwide shortage the of the skills needed to audit carbon savings.
  • The bureaucracy of carbon management is still posing significant problems, even though some progress is being made with reducing validation times for carbon investments.
  • In the CDM, there is tension between the “cleanness”, which leads to carbon saving, credits and money for the emerging economies, and “development”, the much wider objective that all emerging economies have adopted.
Key questions answered
  • What are the key issues affecting different approaches to carbon reduction?
  • How are various emerging economies adapting to the demands of carbon reduction?
  • What are the key trends in carbon emissions by emerging economy?
  • What are the main obstacles to a co-ordinated worldwide approach to carbon reduction?
  • How has the perceived failure of Copenhagen impacted on international policy in this area?



Carbon Management in Emerging Economies
Executive Summary
What Carbon Management is and how it works
Africa
Asia
Latin America
Kazakhstan, Russia and the Ukraine
Conclusions and implications

CHAPTER 1 WHAT CARBON MANAGEMENT IS AND HOW IT WORKS

Summary
Introduction
Definition of carbon management
Emerging countries and their current and future contribution to carbon emissions
Countries covered in this report
Side benefits
The principles of carbon management
The capacity issue
The Clean Development Mechanism
Industry targets
National targets
Carbon trading and carbon markets
The cap and trade approach
Voluntary and mandatory trading
The experience of trading
Taxation, subsidies, regulation and other methods
Capacity building
Industry approaches
Industry innovation
Energy supply
Transport
Buildings
Manufacturing Industry
Agriculture
Forests
Waste management
Local government
Conclusions and the future

CHAPTER 2 AFRICA

Summary
Introduction
Reasons for low African participation in CDM
Oil
The forest opportunity
Sub-Saharan Africa’s main problem – access to energy
Renewable energy resources
Emission reduction through improved stoves
Algeria
Emission levels
Commitments
Natural gas
Solar power
Egypt
Emission levels
Commitments
Renewable energy
Sequestering
Landfill
Ghana
Emission levels
Commitments
Renewable energy
Biodiesel
Kenya
Emission levels
Commitments
Cement
Forestry
Farming
Renewable energy
Nigeria
Emission levels
Commitments
Natural gas
South Africa
Emission levels
Commitments
Capacity building
Coal – the main source of emissions
Local government initiatives
Renewable energy
Landfill
Personal carbon trading
Tanzania
Emission levels
Commitments
Forestry
Africa: conclusions and the future

CHAPTER 3 ASIA

Summary
Introduction
China
Emission levels
Commitments
Construction industry
Power generation
Renewable energy
Trading
Gulf States (Arab only)
Emission levels
Commitments
Oil and gas
Partnerships
Carbon capture and storage
Sustainable energy
Research and development
India
Emission levels
Commitments
Power generation
Renewable energy
Power access and theft
Carbon market
CDM projects
Forestry
Biomass
Iron and steel
Energy efficiency in industry
Rail transport
Tata Group
Indonesia
Emission levels
Commitments
Forestry
Public disclosure programme
Iran
Emission levels
Commitments
Carbon storage
Clean development
Malaysia
Emission levels
Commitments
Research
Pakistan
Emission levels
Commitments
Forestry
Fertilizers
Turkey
Emission levels
Commitments
Wind power
Buildings
Asia: conclusions and the future

CHAPTER 4 LATIN AMERICA

Summary
Introduction
Argentina
Emission levels
Commitments
Power usage
Buildings
Landfill
Other activities
Brazil
Emission levels
Commitments
Forestry
Energy use
CDM
Cattle ranching
Chile
Emissions levels
Commitments
Coal-fired power
Renewable energy
Columbia
Emission levels
Commitments
Wind power
Mexico
Emission levels
Commitments
Power use
Wind power
Oil and gas
Transport
Agriculture and forestry
Other emission reduction opportunities
Venezuela
Emission levels
Commitments
Forestry
Renewable energy
Energy efficiency
Coal
Transport
Mobile phones
Latin America: conclusions and the future

CHAPTER 5 KAZAKHSTAN, RUSSIA AND THE UKRAINE

Summary
Introduction
Kazakhstan
Emission levels
Commitments
Resources
Future participation in carbon markets
Russian Federation
Emission levels
Commitments
Carbon trading
Oil and gas
Forestry
Ukraine
Emission levels
Commitments
Energy use
Buildings
Manufacturing industry
Steel industry
Agriculture
Nuclear energy
Landfill
Kazakhstan, Russia and Ukraine: conclusions and the future

CHAPTER 6 CONCLUSIONS, IMPLICATIONS AND THE FUTURE

Summary
Introduction
Organization and management
The future
Appendix
Glossary
Index

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1.1: Annual net flux of carbon to the atmosphere from land-use change (Tg C), 2005
Figure 2.2: Africa, CO2 emissions levels (thousand metric tons of carbon), 2010
Figure 2.3: Algeria, CO2 emissions levels (thousand metric tons of carbon), 2010
Figure 2.4: Egypt, CO2 emissions levels (thousand metric tons of carbon), 2010
Figure 3.5: India, CO2 emissions levels (thousand metric tons of carbon), 2010
Figure 3.6: Indonesia, CO2 emissions levels (thousand metric tons of carbon), 2010
Figure 3.7: Iran, CO2 emissions levels (thousand metric tons of carbon), 2010
Figure 3.8: Malaysia, CO2 emissions levels (thousand metric tons of carbon), 2010
Figure 3.9: Turkey, CO2 emissions levels (thousand metric tons of carbon), 2010
Figure 4.10: Argentina, CO2 emissions levels (thousand metric tons of carbon), 2010
Figure 4.11: Chile, CO2 emissions levels (thousand metric tons of carbon), 2010
Figure 4.12: Colombia, CO2 emissions levels (thousand metric tons of carbon), 2010
Figure 4.13: Mexico, CO2 emissions levels (thousand metric tons of carbon), 2010
Figure 4.14: Venezuela, CO2 emissions levels (thousand metric tons of carbon), 2010
Figure 5.15: Kazakhstan, CO2 emissions levels (thousand metric tons of carbon), 2010
Figure 5.16: Russia, CO2 emissions levels (thousand metric tons of carbon), 2010
Figure 5.17: Ukraine, CO2 emissions levels (thousand metric tons of carbon), 2010

LIST OF TABLES

Table 1.1: Annual net flux of carbon to the atmosphere from land-use change (Tg C), 2005
Table 2.2: Africa, CO2 emissions levels (thousand metric tons of carbon), 2010
Table 2.3: Algeria, CO2 emissions levels (thousand metric tons of carbon), 2010
Table 2.4: Egypt, CO2 emissions levels (thousand metric tons of carbon), 2010
Table 3.5: India, CO2 emissions levels (thousand metric tons of carbon), 2010
Table 3.6: Indonesia, CO2 emissions levels (thousand metric tons of carbon), 2010
Table 3.7: Iran, CO2 emissions levels (thousand metric tons of carbon), 2010
Table 3.8: Malaysia, CO2 emissions levels (thousand metric tons of carbon), 2010
Table 3.9: Turkey, CO2 emissions levels (thousand metric tons of carbon), 2010
Table 4.10: Argentina, CO2 emissions levels (thousand metric tons of carbon), 2010
Table 4.11: Chile, CO2 emissions levels (thousand metric tons of carbon), 2010
Table 4.12: Colombia, CO2 emissions levels (thousand metric tons of carbon), 2010
Table 4.13: Mexico, CO2 emissions levels (thousand metric tons of carbon), 2010
Table 4.14: Venezuela, CO2 emissions levels (thousand metric tons of carbon), 2010
Table 5.15: Kazakhstan, CO2 emissions levels (thousand metric tons of carbon), 2010
Table 5.16: Russia, CO2 emissions levels (thousand metric tons of carbon), 2010
Table 5.17: Ukraine, CO2 emissions levels (thousand metric tons of carbon), 2010
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