Clean Coal Technologies Markets and Trends Worldwide, 2nd Edition

Date: January 1, 2012
Pages: 242
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Clean Coal Technologies Markets and Trends Worldwide, 2nd Edition
Coal is expected to continue to be a dominant fuel in power generation due to its low cost and abundance. Nearly 7 billion tonnes of coal were produced globally in 2010, and over 40% of global electricity was coal powered. On a levelized cost of production basis, the global market value of coal-fired electricity exceeded $400 billion. Nonetheless, conventional coal power generation is a leading contributor to global greenhouse gas emissions and is increasingly being regulated and disincentivized. Further, clean and renewable energy sources are beginning to challenge conventional fossil fuels.

Clean coal technologies that improve the environmental performance of coal power generation are expected to enable coal to remain an attractive fuel option well into the future. Several clean coal technologies that increase efficiency of coal power plants and reduce emissions are actively being developed and deployed to meet these challenges. As development and adoption of these technologies has increased, the global value of electricity generation using clean coal technologies has concurrently grown to $63 billion in 2010 and is further expected to grow to $85 billion by 2020.

While coal washing, particulate, and emissions treatments have been in use for several decades, recent advances in these technologies have substantially improved the effectiveness and reduced the cost of these solutions. As a result of these advances and increasing emissions regulation around the world, the adoption of technologies that reduce SO2, NOx and particulate emissions has accelerated over the past decade. Concurrently, combustion technologies including super critical (SC), ultra-super critical (UC) pulverized coal combustion (PCC), and circulating and pressurized fluidized bed combustion (FBC) technologies are increasing the power conversion efficiencies of coal power plants. These advanced technologies have enabled simultaneous improvements in emissions and economics of coal-fired generation. Advanced power plant designs incorporating gasification and combined cycle power generation (IGCC) have also been recently commercialized and have demonstrated significantly higher efficiencies of up to 45 percent. Such high efficiency coal power technologies reduce the production of carbon dioxide as they combust less coal per unit of power generated and have demonstrated emissions reductions of up to 33 percent over conventional pulverized coal technologies.

However, the greatest opportunity for the coal industry to reinvent itself as a clean power source lies in the maturation and deployment of carbon capture and sequestration technologies (CCS). CCS technologies enable the capture of carbon dioxide from coal power conversion processes and sequester it in underground and offshore geological formations; virtually eliminating greenhouse gas emissions from coal combustion. While CCS technologies and processes have been leveraged in industrial and oil and gas applications for decades, it is only in recent years that the technologies have been adapted and demonstrated on large-scale coal power plants. The success of these early projects could pave the road for truly clean coal power.

Global Clean Coal Technologies and Markets provides a detailed discussion of the key technologies, deployed or in development, to address the environmental impact of coal. The various clean coal technologies that hold the most promise for commercial deployment are discussed in the report. CCS and other clean coal technologies are reviewed from the point of view of their current status, likely future performance and R&D needs, and potential for commercial adoption. The report also includes a broad review of the market for clean coal technologies for coal-fired electricity generation. The global market demand for coal, electricity, and clean coal-fired electricity is quantified and projections for growth in demand are provided, along with the key factors influencing this growth in leading coal consuming nation around the world. Global Clean Coal Technologies and Markets details the current and projected percentage of electricity generated by clean coal technologies. The historical and projected market value of the clean coal technologies is also covered. The report includes profiles of 15 companies actively engaged in the clean coal market, and also details current and potential US employment in the sector. The ongoing research, development, commercialization and deployment of clean coal technologies is expected to generate a significant number of direct, indirect and induced jobs over the next 10 to 15 years. The construction and operation of coal-fired power plants that incorporate clean coal technologies will also result in the creation of tens of thousands of jobs across a variety of sectors. The report provides an overview of coal- and electricity-related employment and details projections for expected growth.
INTRODUCTION

Report Methodology
What You’ll Get in This Report
How You’ll Benefit from This Report

CHAPTER 1: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Scope
  The abundance of coal and its use as a primary fuel source
  Table 1-1: Largest Coal Exporters/Importers, 2010, million metric tonnes (Mt)
  Table 1-2: Environmental Challenges Presented by Various Coal Plant Emissions
  Clean Coal Technologies
  Table 1-3: Clean Coal Technologies
Pulverized Coal Combustion
  Subcritical Pulverized Coal Combustion
  Supercritical Pulverized Coal Combustion
  Ultra-Supercritical Pulverized Coal Combustion
  Fluidized Bed Combustion
  Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Generation
  Carbon Capture and Sequestration
Cost Economics of Clean Coal Technologies
  Market drivers
  Figure 1-1: World Net Electricity Generation by Region, 1990 - 2035
  Table 1-4: Clean Coal Electricity Generation by Region, 2010 - 2020 (TW)
  Figure 1-2: 2010 Share of Total Coal-Fired Electricity Generation by Plant Type
  Figure 1-3: Share of Total Coal-Fired Electricity Generation by Plant Type
  Table 1-5: Historic and Projected Global CCT Market Value 2006 to 2020 ($ billion)
  Government incentives
  Market Demand Inhibitors and Risk Factors
  Figure 1-4: Percentage of Electricity Generated by Coal
  Market drivers
  Meeting the growing demand for electricity with Clean Coal Technologies
  Market Participants
  Table 1-6: List of Companies Profiled
  US Clean Coal Investments and Employment Outlook
  Table 1-7: Coal production in the United States, 2005-2011 (thousand short tons)
  Table 1-8: Projected coal mining employment 2011 through 2020
  Table 1-9: Project electric power employment 2011 through 2020
  Employment in Advanced Coal Power Generation with Carbon Capture and Sequestration (ACPGCCS)
  Table 1-10: Project ACPBCCS employment 2006 through 2020
  Figure 1-5: Employment by sector due to construction of ACPGCCS
  Figure 1-6: Distribution of jobs by sector
  Report Methodology
  Abbreviations and Definitions
  Table 1-11: Abbreviations Utilized in Report

CHAPTER 2: CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGIES

Overview
  Table 2-1 Clean Coal Technologies and Emissions Addressed
Coal Fundamentals
  Coal Composition and Types
  Figure 2-1: Global Coal Reserves by Type and Use (% world reserves)
  Table 2-2: Typical Chemical Composition and Thermal Content of US Coal by Type (% weight)
  World Coal Resources
  Table 2-3: Top Five Producers of World Hard Coal, 2010
  Coal Extraction
  Coal Preparation
  Environmental Impact of Coal-Fired Power Generation
  Table 2-4: World Electricity Generated from Coal, 2010
  Table 2-5: Environmental Challenges Presented by Various Coal Plant Emissions
  Table 2-6: Average Emission Rates from Coal-Fired Electricity Generation
  Coal Combustion Technologies
  Table 2-7: Average Achievable Combustion Efficiency by Combustion Technology (% conversion efficiency)
  Figure 2-2: Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Coal-Fired Power Plants at Various Efficiencies (in tonnes/MWh)
  Pulverized Coal Combustion
  Figure 2-3: Pulverized Coal Combustion Process
  Table 2-8: Pressure, Temperature, & Efficiency Comparison of PCC Steam Units
Subcritical Pulverized Coal Combustion
Supercritical Pulverized Coal Combustion
Ultra-Supercritical Pulverized Coal Combustion
  Fluidized Bed Combustion
  Figure 2-4: Schematic of Fluidized Bed Combustion
Bubbling Fluidized Bed
Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustion
  Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Generation
  Figure 2-5: Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Combustion Process
Coal Gasification
Combined Cycle Power Generation
Advantages of IGCC Systems
Post-Combustion Effluent Treatment Technologies
  Particulate Removal Systems
  Table 2-9: Comparison of Particulate Removal Systems
Fabric Filters
Electrostatic Precipitators
Wet Particulate Scrubbers
  Flue Gas Desulfurization
  Table 2-10: Comparison of Flue Gas Desulfurization Systems
Wet Scrubbers
Dry Scrubbers
Sorbent Injection Processes
Nitrogen Oxide Reduction Systems
Low-NOx Burners
  Table 2-11: Comparison of Nitrogen Oxide-Reducing Flue Gas Systems
Selective Catalytic Reduction
  Figure 2-6: Schematic of Selective Catalytic Reduction Process
Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction
  Figure 2-7: Flow Diagram of Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction Process
Carbon Capture and Sequestration
  Carbon Capture
Post Combustion Capture
Technology Overview
  Figure 2-8: Typical Post-Combustion Carbon Capture Unit for Pulverized Coal Plant
Advantages and Disadvantages
  Table 2-12: Challenges For Post-Combustion Capture for Coal Plants vs. Industrial Applications
  Table 2-13: Advantages and Disadvantages of Post-Combustion Capture (Chemical Absorption)
  Table 2-14: Representative Post-Combustion Carbon Capture Coal-Fired Power Plant Projects
Innovation
  Table 2-15: Representative Post-Combustion CCS Technologies (Absorption Systems)
  Pre-Combustion Capture
Technology Overview
  Figure 2-9: Typical Pre-Combustion Carbon Capture Process for IGCC Plant
  Table 2-16: Representative Pre-Combustion CCS Technologies
Advantages and Disadvantages
  Table 2-17: Advantages and Disadvantages of Pre-Combustion Capture
  Table 2-18: Representative Pre-Combustion Carbon Capture Coal-Fired Power Plant Projects
Innovation
  Oxyfuel Combustion
Technology Overview
  Figure 2-10: Typical Oxyfuel Carbon Capture Process for Pulverized Coal Plant
Advantages and Disadvantages
  Table 2-19: Advantages and Disadvantages of Oxyfuel Combustion
  Table 2-20: Representative Oxyfuel Carbon Capture Coal-Fired Power Plant Projects
Innovation
  Carbon Transportation
  Carbon Sequestration
Geologic Sequestration Reservoirs
  Figure 2-11: Geologic Carbon Sequestration
Depleted Oil and Gas Fields
Deep Saline Formations
Deep Coal Seams

CHAPTER 3: CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGIES MARKET DEMAND DRIVERS, INHIBITORS, AND RISK FACTORS

  Market Demand Drivers
  Growth in Global Energy Consumption
Abundance of Global Coal Resources
  Figure 3-1: World Net Electricity Generation by Region, 1990 - 2035
  Table 3-1: Status of Coal Supply Terms
  Table 3-2: Proved Reserves at end of 2009 (million tones)
  Table 3-2: (continued) Proved Reserves at end of 2009, million tones
  Growth in Global Electricity Demand
  Figure 3-2: Growth in world electric power generation and total energy consumption, 1990-2035 (index, 1990 = 1)
  Table 3-3: Residential and Commercial demand
  Figure 3-3: World Net Electricity Generation OECD vs Non-OECD, 1990-2035
  Low Cost of Coal Power Generation
  Increasing Emissions Regulation in Various Countries
  Government Incentives to Promote Development/Commercialization of Clean Coal Technologies
  Advances in Clean Coal Technologies
  Market Demand Inhibitors and Risk Factors
Competition from Other Power Generation Fuels and Technologies
  Natural Gas versus coal
  Nuclear versus coal
  Renewables versus coal
  Cost Economics of Clean Coal Technologies
Cost uncertainty
  Advanced Clean Coal Technologies Unproven on Commercial Scale
  Table 3-4: Carbon Capture Technology Status
Failure to Adopt Carbon Emissions Regulation in Large Industrialized Nations
Negative Public Opinion/Resistance to Coal as a “Green” Power Sources

CHAPTER 4: CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGIES MARKET SIZE

Growth drivers
Figure 4-1: Demand for Electricity Growth Rate 2008 through 2035
Figure 4-2: World Coal Consumption 2016 through 2020.
Key participants
Regulatory environment
Barriers to growth
Historic and Projected Global Volume of CCT-Enabled Electricity 2006 to 2020
  Table 4-1: Clean Coal Electricity Generation by Region, 2010 - 2020 (TW)
  Subcritical
  Figure 4-3: Percent Energy Capacity, Subcritical Plants by Region, 2010 and 2020 (TW)
  Super/ultra-critical
  Figure 4-4: Percent Energy Capacity, Super/Ultra-Critical Plants by Region, 2010 and 2020 (TW)
  FBC
  Figure 4-5: Percent Energy Capacity, FBC Plants by Region, 2010 and 2020 (TW)
  IGCC
  Figure 4-6: Percent Energy Capacity, IGCC Plants by Region, 2010 and 2020 (TW)
  Total energy capacity
  Figure 4-7: Percent Energy Capacity, Total CCT Plants by Region, 2010 and 2020 (TW)
Historic and Projected Global CCT Market Value 2006 to 2020
  Table 4-2 Global Coal-Fired Electricity Generations by Plant Type (TW)
  Figure 4-8: 2010 Share of Total Coal-Fired Electricity Generation by Plant Type
  Figure 4-9: 2016 Share of Total Coal-Fired Electricity Generation by Plant Type
  Table 4-3: Historic and Projected Global CCT Market Value 2006 to 2020 ($ billion)
Clean Coal Technology Markets in Major Coal Consuming Nations/Regions
  United States
  Canada
  China
  India
  Japan
  Russia
  Australia
  South Africa
  Western Europe
Coal Production/Sourcing
  Table 4-4: World’s Top Coal-Producing Countries, 2011
  Coal sourcing
  Table 4-5: Largest Coal Exporters/Importers, 2010, million metric tonnes (Mt)
  Australia
  Indonesia
  Russia
  United States
  South Africa
Coal Consumption
  Table 4-6: Coal Consumption by Country/Region, 2006 - 2020
  Table 4-7: World total energy consumption by fuel 2006-2020 (Quadrillion Btu)
Electricity Demand
  Electricity Generated from Coal
Stated/Pending Clean Coal Regulation
  Western Europe
  China
  India
  Russia
  Australia
Historic and Projected Global CCT Market Value 2006 to 2020
  United States
  Table 4-8: Installed US CCT Capacity, 2010 to 2020 (TW)
  Table 4-9: US Installed Capacity Other Technologies, 2010 - 2020
  China
  Table 4-10: China installed CCT capacity, 2010-2020 (TW)
  Table 4-11: China installed capacity other technologies, 2010-2020 (GW)
  India
  Table 4-12: India installed CCT capacity, 2010-2020 (TW)
  Table 4-13: India installed capacity other technologies, 2010-2020 (GW)
  European Union
  Table 4-14: Europe installed CCT capacity, 2010 - 2020 (TW)
  Table 4-15: Europe installed capacity other technologies, 2010 - 2020 (GW)
  Japan
  Table 4-16: Japan installed CCT capacity, 2010-2020 (TW)
  Table 4-17: Japan installed capacity other technologies, 2010-2020 (GW)
  Global CCT projects
  Table 4-18: Clean Coal Technology Demonstration/Pilot/Commercial Projects for Electric Power Generation Worldwide
  Table 4-19: Global CCT Market Value, 2006 - 2020 (US$, billion)

CHAPTER 5: PARTICIPANT PROFILES

Overview
  Table 5-1: List of Companies Profiled
Acorn Energy, Incorporated
  Table 5-2: Acorn Energy, Incorporated Profile
  Corporate Overview
  Product Portfolio
  Table 5-3: Acorn Energy, Incorporated Portfolio
  Performance
  Figure 5-1: Acorn Energy Revenues and Operating Income, 2006-2010e (in $ M)
ADA-ES, Incorporated
  Table 5-4: ADA-ES, Incorporated Profile
  Corporate Overview
  Product Portfolio
  Table 5-5: ADA Environmental Solutions Product Portfolio
  Performance
  Figure 5-2: ADA Environmental Services Revenues and Net Income, 2006-2010e (in $ M)
Alstom Power
  Table 5-6: Alstom Power Profile
  Corporate Overview
  Product Portfolio
  Table 5-7: Alstom Power Product Portfolio
  Performance
  Figure 5-3: Alstom Revenues and Net Income, 2006-2010e (in € B)
Arch Coal, Incorporated
  Table 5-8: Arch Coal, Incorporated Profile
  Corporate Overview
  Product Portfolio
  Performance
  Figure 5-4: Arch Coal, Incorporated Revenues and Net Income, 2006-2010 (in $ B)
American Electric Power
  Table 5-9: American Electric Power Profile
  Corporate Overview
  Product Portfolio
  Figure 5-5: American Electric Power Electricity Generating Capacity by Fuel Source (in Percent)
  Performance
  Figure 5-6: American Electric Revenues and Net Income, 2006-2010 (in $ B)
China Huaneng Group
  Table 5-10 China Huaneng Group Profile
  Corporate Overview
  Product Portfolio
  Performance
  Figure 5-7: China Huaneng Group Revenues and Net Income, 2006-2010e (in RMB B)
CO2 Solution, Incorporated
  Table 5-11: CO2 Solution, Incorporated Profile
  Corporate Overview
  Product Portfolio
  Performance
  Figure 5-8: CO2 Solution, Incorporated Revenues and Net Income, 2006-2010 (in $ M)
ConocoPhillips
  Table 5-12 ConocoPhillips Profile
  Corporate Overview
  Product Portfolio
  Performance
  Figure 5-9: ConocoPhillips Revenues and Net Income, 2006-2010 (in $ B)
Foster Wheeler AG
  Table 5-13: Foster Wheeler AG Profile
  Corporate Overview
  Product Portfolio
  Figure 5-10: Foster Wheeler AG Revenue by Business Segment (in Percent)
  Performance
  Figure 5-11: Foster Wheeler AG Revenues and Net Income, 2006-2010 (in $ B)
General Electric
  Table 5-14: General Electric Profile
  Corporate Overview
  Product Portfolio
  Performance
  Figure 5-12: General Electric Revenues and Net Income, 2006-2010 (in $ B)
Halliburton Company
  Table 5-15: Halliburton Company Profile
  Corporate Overview
  Product Portfolio
  Table 5-36: Halliburton Company Product Portfolio
  Performance
  Figure 5-13: Halliburton Company Revenues and Net Income, 2006-2010 (in $ B)
Peabody Energy Corporation
  Table 5-17: Peabody Energy Corporation Profile
  Corporate Overview
  Product Portfolio
  Performance
  Figure 5-14: Peabody Energy Revenues and Net Income, 2006-2010 (in $ B)
Praxair, Incorporated
  Table 5-18: Praxair, Incorporated Profile
  Corporate Overview
  Product Portfolio
  Table 5-19: Praxair, Incorporated Product Portfolio
  Performance
  Figure 5-15: Praxair, Incorporated Revenues and Net Income, 2006-2010 (in $ B)
Siemens AG
  Table 5-20: Siemens AG. Profile
  Corporate Overview
  Product Portfolio
  Performance
  Figure 5-16: Siemens AG Revenues and Net Income, 2006-2010 (in € B)
Schlumberger, Ltd.
  Table 5-21: Schlumberger, Ltd. Profile
  Corporate Overview
  Product Portfolio
  Table 5-22: Schlumberger, Ltd. Product Portfolio
  Performance
  Figure 5-17: Schlumberger, Ltd Revenues and Net Income, 2006-2010 (in $ B)

CHAPTER 6: U.S. COAL-RELATED EMPLOYMENT

Overview
US Coal Mining Employment
  Figure 6-1: Employment Trend, 1985 - 2010 (in thousands)
  Coal Mining Industry Structure
  Table 6-1: Major US Coal Mining Companies
  Table 6-2: US Coal Production, 2005 - 2011 (thousand short tons)
Occupations in Coal Mining
  Figure 6-:2 Top Coal Producing States, 2011
Coal Mining Employment 2006 to 2010
  Table 6-3: Disbursements of Employees across States and by Mine Type, 2009
  Table 6-4: Coal Mining employment (monthly), 2006 - 2010
Projected Coal Mining Employment 2011 to 2020
  Table 6-5: Coal Mining Employment, 2011 - 2020
US Electric Power Employment
Electric Power Industry Structure
  Figure 6-3: Sources of Fuel for Electricity, 2010
Traditional Electric Utilities
  Table 6-6: Retail Sales of Electricity to Ultimate Customers: Total by End-Use Sector, 1997 through May 2011, million Kilowatt hours
Occupations in Electric Power
Electric Power Employment 2006 to 2010
  Table 6-7: Electric Power Employment Levels, 2006 - 2010
Projected Electric Power Employment 2011 to 2020
  Table 6-8: Electric Power Employment Figures, 2011 - 2020
Employment in Advanced Coal Power Generation with Carbon Capture and Sequestration (ACPGCCS)
Projected US ACPGCCS Employment 2006 to 2020
  Table 6-9: Projected Employment, 2006 - 2020, based on three different investment scenarios
Indirect and Induced Employment Resulting from ACPGCCS
  Figure 6-4: Distribution of Jobs by Sector, 2010
  Figure 6-5: Distribution of Jobs by Sector

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